Test Case4: Module L, O, OS, P, CP will be integrated and tested. And so on other test cases are derived. Merits of Top-down Methodology Early exposure of architecture defects It outlines the working of an application as a whole in early stages and helps in early disclosure of design defects. Main control points are tested early De-merits of Top-down
The testing may be stated as the process of validating and verifying that a software system or product in terms of meeting requirements –both functional and nonfunctional- for design and development stages, expectation of a work and implementation of characteristics. Software testing consist some stages as: process, all lifecycle activities, static testing, dynamic testing, planning, preparation, evaluation and related work products that creates a standardization of whole process widely. As testing takes a huge place in software standardization the necessity of process of testing may be declared as; discovering defects avoiding user detection problems aiming production of faultless software concerning reliability of the software. avoiding end user customer problems ensuring that product meets user requirements proving the corporation to business
In the field of HCI, heuristic evaluation is a technique for computer software that supports identifying usability problems in the user interface design based on a set of design guidelines, usability principles and heuristics (6). Heuristic evaluations can determine structural problems and root causes of the usability failures and issues; furthermore, it’s a cost-effective method that providing effective insights and feedbacks to designers and developers (12). Many studies have shown that heuristic evaluation can predict major usability issues that might potentially occur throughout the usability tests (18,
It is used to develop features and goals for product and process, in identifying critical of product/process factor, designing customaries the potential problems, establishing the control to prevent the errors and prioritizing the process submit to ensure reliability. FMEA most commonly applied but not limit to design (DFMEA) and manufacturing process (PFMEA). Design failure mode and effect analysis (DFMEA) identify the potential failure of design before they occur.DFMEA then goes to establish a potential effects of the failures, there causes, how often and when they might occur and their potential seriousness. Process failure mode and effect analysis (PFMEA) is systemized group of activities intended to recognized and evaluated the potential failure of a product/process and its effect .indentify action which could eliminate or reduce the occurrence or improve the defect ability, document the process and track change to avoid the potential failure cause. 2.2 FMEA approach FMEA is carried out by a cross-functional team of experts from various departments.
This analysis is also used to assist the user in constructing test data by describing the subset of the input domain that causes that path to be executed . Issues related to this symbolic evaluation might be: • Output may be extremely complex and hard to manually recognize as proper formula. • Evaluation might become complex due to the fact that a program variable (an array element) may have another variable embedded in it. • It also might be difficult to verify the correctness of the evaluator. Structured walkthroughs is one of the technique used for testing, Walkthrough involve: • Certain classes of inputs are selected and then the actions of the system for that class of data are traced through the design.
Implementation & coding. Implementation: With implementation, this is where the project team makes the actual product. The overview and the idea of the project become clearer. The project team begins to build and code the software. Coding: The Designing of the software must be done properly and also the required information must be gathered accurately, the coding process will have different phases as which when linked together they will form the end product of what’s needed.
Case-based reasoning Case-based reasoning is a problem solving paradigm that in many respects is fundamentally different from other major AI approaches. Instead of re-lying solely on general knowledge of a problem domain, or making associations along generalized relationships between problem descriptors and conclusions, CBR is able to utilize the specific knowledge of previously experienced, concrete problem situations (cases). A new problem is solved by finding a similar past case, and reusing it in the new problem situation. A second important difference is that CBR also is an approach to incremental, sustained learning, since a new experience is retained each time a problem has been solved, making it immediately available for future problems
Having a program theory can help understand the status of a program and can assist in identifying the type of evaluation that can be done and also if it is in the beginning of a program the design phase can use the program theory to ensure that preconditions for its success is put in place. It also helps in selecting the hypothesis to explore and measure in a systematic manner A sound program theory can help identify problems in the design whether in the theory of action or theory of change and help identify stages of implementation where monitoring and evaluation needs to be done by looking at critical aspects that are to be monitored with respect to inputs process outcomes and any key factors that may affect the outcome and to ensure that the program is working well and on track. It can also help identify key evaluation questions regarding the program. Thus, having a sound program theory will help us identify which part of the causal links failed and the reasons. It will help judge assumptions that were made during the design phase and help make judgements of whether a particular outcome needs to be evaluated as the activities were designed during the program theory and the various success criteria were defined along with the program and non-program factors for the intended outcome and since these details are present it is easier to decide if an evaluation needs to be done now or
This has to be taken care of by means of good training program for the employees. Apart from that user-friendly manuals would also be required. There could be several negative implications of not addressing this risk, like, • Degraded product: If the employee is not sure about how to make use of the new technology, the quality of output is going to get impacted. For example: If his job is to review documents, there is high chance that he might miss to notice errors, if he is not comfortable using the new digital system for scrolling. • Negative rate of return: There is another serious implication of mishandling.