Prison Overcrowding Prison overcrowding is a current issue that the United States is trying to resolve since prison population has dramatically increased starting from the 1980s. Prison overcrowding is when the prison population exceeds the prison’s capacity which then can create many problems for the prisoners and the society. Some of the problems related to the overcrowding can be related to the inmate’s health, reentry, and control. Only felons with sentences longer than a year are the ones serving time in prisons. Some of the felons are being released earlier than their mandatory time because there is not sufficient space in prison for them to serve their time.
The amount of rehabilitation provided in prisons is slowly increasing as more light is being shed on the issue. There is no difference between an inmate and a non-offender seeking treatment but the limitations for inmates to receive effective treatment they need are countless. “Sixty to 80 percent of the American inmate population has a history of substance abuse. Meanwhile, the number of drug-treatment slots in American prisons has declined by more than half since 1993” (Schlosser 54). Reflecting on this, an aspect that stands out is the date of 1993.
Elderly offenders are a number of men and women ages 55 years and older that face life sentence or waiting for parole. There are more male than female prisoners there's about 42% white prisoners, 33% are black and around 15% hispanic. Elderly prison have grown from 32,600 in 1995 to 124,400 in 2010. They say that about the year 2030 will approach one third of the total prison population. Elderly prisons are two to three times more expensive than younger offenders, they could be up $72,000 per year for medical care and housing.
When it comes to effectiveness, ECT works more often, more quickly, and more thoroughly than any other treatment option available to those who suffer many brain illnesses. ECT starts working in one to two weeks, versus medication therapies that can take six to eight weeks. The faster that a treatment works, the sooner patients can start rebuilding their lives. Quick treatment can improve quality of life; halt the damage to diminish financial challenges. Patients experience less dementia, or cognition decline, than individuals with untreated brain illness.
The United States spends billions of dollars on incarceration each year with the average yearly increase in state spending on prisons from 1999 to 2009 being approximately 3 percent (James, 2011, p.632). With the number of incarcerated offenders growing each year, the cost of incarceration is expected to continue rising. According to the National Association of State Budget Office, correctional spending by state governments by 2011 was estimated to be at $50 billion annually (Collier, 2014,
Social isolation is a huge public health issue for the aging population. Social isolation is the cause for nearly half of mortality in United States. According to the United States Census Bureau the population of adults 65 and older is going to increase by about twice the amount by year 2040 (Nicholson & Shellman, 2013). Social isolation has a huge effect on an older person’s wellbeing both physically and mentally. Someone who is experiencing social isolation is not likely participating in social activities or work.
By the reason that women are more vulnerable to be involved in a crime rather than men. “In 35 states, women’s population numbers have fared worse than men’s, and in a few extraordinary states, women’s prison populations have even grown enough to counteract reductions in the men’s population” (Sawyer). The data demonstrate that in this century women have grown population faster than men in incarceration. Before the 1970 women were almost rare to see in prison, local jails, federal prisons or state prison, but since the 1985 the rate grew dramatically in the local jails and state prisons, the federal prisons rate doesn’t have a hilarious increasing, but its increasing little by little. The difference of gender in the correctional system isn’t like the way it was supposed to be in the past.
In 2012, statistics showed that prisons were overcrowded by 41 percent, the highest since 2004. Overcrowded prisons can become highly ineffective as space becomes limited and the amount of inmates to monitor increases. This means more jobs that are necessary for guards which then equals more tax money invested into the penal system. CNN provides information acquired by the United States census which shows how much money is spent on students compared to prisoners per year separated by states. The lowest amount provided per prisoner is in Kentucky where each prisoner costs around $12,000 whereas each student costs a little under $10,000.
Further more, between 1985 and 2009, the white male prison population increased by forty one percent and the Black and Asian community grew by an extortionate rate of one hundred and four percent and two hundred and sixty one retrospectively (Home Office 1986; MOJ, 2010). This figures are shocking as it should be in line with the rate of population growth in the UK but it is not; therefore suggesting forms of discrimination are taking place at some or all points of the CJS. There have also been many racial incidents that have taken place in prisons in which many have lead to fatality; the Zahid Mubarek case being infamous and it received huge media attention. Mubarek was a young Asian male in Felthams Young Offenders Unit and was beaten to
"The Antelope Valley has some of the tougher temperature extremes in L.A. County, with hot summer days and winter nights that can dip into freezing temperatures. It also saw one of the biggest increases in its homeless population this past year, up 50 percent to 4,559 people (Palta). These city council members have decided to extend the shelter in the winters in looking to open a secondary shelter. The goal is to open about 14,000 beds throughout the LA area. More cities, like New York and Atlanta, need to be following this lead to provide the homeless a more safe and warm place to sleep at night, a better chance at surviving the harsh winter
This act abolished parole, reduced good time and established determinate sentencing. With this act, the inmate population increased by more than fifty percent from 24,000 to 59,000. Throughout the 1990’s, the population doubled once again to 136,000 inmates at the end of 1999. Increased conviction rates were mainly due to the recent combat against illegal drugs as well as illegal immigration. The Bureau of Prisons is “structured for success”.
There has been an exceedingly high increase in the population in federal prisons. “The Federal prison population has grown by 750 percent since 1980 and our Federal prisons are approximately 30 percent over capacity” (). We are overflowing our prison cells with criminals of all degrees. We need Smarter Sentencing to keep people from have long drawn out sentences and crowding up our cells for people who actually need to be there for that amount of time. Over capacitated cells are actually ridiculous.
The sixty-five and over population has grown to be the fastest growing group. Because there will be advances in nutrition and medicine, centenarians will be at one million by the center of the twenty-first century. Non-whites are to be expected to be one-third of the population by 2050. As of now, minorities are misrepresented because most of them do not have health insurance or care. Majority of them are poor and work very dangerous jobs.
Living Old in America In American today, those over 85 are now the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. Medical advances allowed the number of Americans to live longer with healthier lives but comorbidities for others. In the past two decades, patients died from viruses, influenza and pneumonia. Today, advancement in healthcare has created a new development. Now that vaccines, procedures and medicine are available for all these diseases that once took the lives of the young and old population, the American people are living longer with a new challenge.
By examining participants over the course of a two year time frame data will become more accurate. In this amount of time prisoners will have the ability to adjust to the prison atmosphere. If the study were to exceed over a certain time frame the possibility of demoralizing inmates can come into effect hindering the results. For example death row inmates will not suit this particular study, because they are less likely to participate in adjustment programs and dont have the same mindset as someone getting released. Requested samples are also required to be over the age of 25.