Related Literature About Bread

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Stacy Hackner (2015) Bread is at its simplest it is merely a paste of flour meal and water cooked over or surrounded by heat. More complex breads are leavened it in various ways and contain salt and other ingredients, particularly fat and sugar. Although bread is usually thought of as being made from wheat, it can be made from virtually any grain—rye, corn (tortillas), barley and oats (bannocks), teff (injera), amaranth, millet, and rice. Only wheat, however, has the gluten that is essential to a risen loaf, so unless these other grains are mixed with wheat, the loaves will be flat. Many, such as oat, barley, will be, heavy and dense as well. The kernel of wheat is the grain used in most breads. Wheat
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It forms the bland main component

of bread pudding, as well as of stuffing’s designed to fill cavities or retain juices that

otherwise might drip out. Bread has a social and emotional significance beyond its

importance as nourishment. It plays essential roles in religious rituals and secular

culture. Its prominence in daily life is reflected in language, where it appears in

proverbs, colloquial expressions ("He stole the bread from my mouth"), in prayer

("Give us this day our daily bread") and in the etymology of words, such as

"companion" (from Latin com "with" + panis "bread") The old English word for

bread was hlaf (hlaifs in Gothic: modern English loaf), which appears to be the

oldest Teutonic name. Old High German hleib and modern German Laib derive from

this Proto-Germanic word, which was borrowed into Slavic

(Polish chleb, Russian khleb) and Finnic (Finnish leipä, Estonian leib) languages as

well. The Middle and Modern English word bread appears in Germanic languages,

such as Frisian brea, Dutch brood, German Brot, Swedish bröd,

and Norwegian and Danish br;it ød may be related to brew or perhaps to
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Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks

used for pounding plants. It is possible that during this time, starch extract from

the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over

a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread. Around 10,000 BC, with the

dawn of the Neolithic age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the

mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including on the surface

of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest leavens naturally. There were multiple

sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed

by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. pliny the

elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer

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