Related Literature Of Speech Acts

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter reviews some related literature including speech acts, illocutionary act, speech act of apology, apology strategies, connotation, context and previous studies.
2.1 Speech Acts
According to Levinson (1983: 236) speech acts is doing things by uttering something. Thus, people are using certain words to perform communicative action in real world context. For example, when we say, “this room is very hot” we wish to achieve the goal of having the intended hearers helping us turning the air conditioner or opening the window. The principle of speech act theory is by saying something, we actually doing something. In other words, speech acts means an utterance that has performative function in languages and communication.
Moreover, Austin (1975) states that utterances can perform three kinds of act. First, locutionary act is the act of saying something or producing a series of sounds which mean something. Second, the illocutionary act is a performance of an act in saying something as opposed to performance of an act such as informing, ordering, and warning. The last is perlocutionary act that produces some effects upon thoughts, feeling, or actions of audiences.

2.2 Classification of Illocutionary Acts
Searle (1975) classifies illocutionary acts into five ways: declaratives, representatives, commisives, directives, and expressive.
1. Declaratives are speech acts in which the world having immediate changes via the utterances such

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