The deficit in social communication is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Among the various symptoms of ASD, it is always the most concern aspect of the parents of autistic children since it influences the development of children in different areas, including interpersonal relationship, learning and work. In this essay, I would like to figure out some ways to help children of ASD in the social communication aspect. Characteristics of ASD children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed based on persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. In the social communication aspects, ASD children may be found
Study concerned with fear and anxiety about oral communication has been conducted under a variety of labels, most notably stage fright (Clevenger, 1959), reticence (Phillips, 1968), shyness (Zimbardo, 1977), audience sensitivity (Paivio, 1964), and communication apprehension (Horwitz, 2002; McCroskey, 1970, 1975). The term communication apprehension (CA) has been chosen for the purpose of this study because it more broadly represents the total of the fears and anxieties studied previously, and the research conducted under the other
Jenness (1932) found that when experiment participants carried out the task in a group, they reported estimates of roughly same value even though they had previously quoted different estimates as individuals. Jenness’ study revealed the impact of majority influence, and established a direct correlation between a group influence on an individual’s behaviour and beliefs especially when participants are uncertain about the actual number of beans in the jar. Another classical study on conformity was based on finding out how social norms are developed in social groups and how the influences of these norms when developed impact on an individual’s behaviour. The Autokinetic phenomenon study of Sherif (1937) according to Baron et al. (2008, p.277), illustrated vividly the impact of private acceptance of social influence.
In C. Fred Alford’s essay “Mirror Neurons, Psychoanalysis, and the Age of Empathy”, Alford discusses the way mirror neurons have brought new ways to understand the intentions of others. Mirror neurons where discovered by researcher Giancomo Rizzolatti in Parma, Italy. He began his studies on monkeys as he had implanted wires next to their frontal lobes region of the brain to monitor the activity of the monkeys planning and movements. One of the researchers walked into the lab with an ice cream cone in hand and the monkey just stared at him. He moved the cone up to his mouth and he monkey’s monitor beeped, but the monkey did not even move, it was all in its head.
According to the Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition). It states that an individual with Autistic Spectrum Disorder has persistent defects in the social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts. They have restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities. For a diagnosis to be made, symptoms must be present in the early developmental period. Symptoms can cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning.
After observing children in the field, Watson hypothesized that the fearful response of children to loud noises is an innate unconditioned response. He wanted to test the notion that by following the principles of the procedure now known as "classical conditioning", he could use this unconditioned response to condition a child to fear a distinctive stimulus that normally would not be feared by a child (in this case, furry objects). Method Edit The aim of Watson and Rayner was to condition a phobia in an emotionally stable child.  For this study they chose a nine-month old infant from a hospital referred to as "Albert" for the experiment.  Watson followed the procedures which Pavlov had used in his experiments with dogs.
The consequences of communication apprehension (CA) are emotional, educational, and social. Shyness and reticence affect the social skills necessary for children to make friends. Shy students tend to confine their career aspirations to vocations that require little oral communication. They seem to have a higher need to avoid failure, and they have less achievement or success motivation than other
This can cause confusion amongst people. Dialect emerges because of multiple sound changes that fails to spread across an entire speech community. The study of dialect and the study of language history are linked together. “A speaker’s accent or dialect may elicit positive or negative reactions in the listener. Accent has been defined as a unique mode of sound production that is influenced by a speaker’s dialect or native language.”(Edwards,1997).
During observation, it was hard to find the examples of the cognitive development from them because there were not many activities was going in the classroom because of their age. Kian was playing the square blocks with his friend and it looks like they were making the castle. During monitoring Kian, I observed that when the teacher took the block away and he cried for a second, however; he noticed that the teacher was hiding a block behind her back. While Milo is the one who playing with him could not find where is the block. According to the Table 5.1 at ages 18 to 24 months, infants are able to imagine where the location of the subjects when it is disappeared.
Social use of language refers to the domain of language which deals with pragmatics or pragmatic use of language. Pragmatics is the social use of language and explains how the other aspects of language; e.g. phonology, semantic, morphology, and syntax are used in different conversational contexts (Camarata & Gibson, 1999, p.208). The nature of ADHD as described in the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of American Psychiatric Association indicates a potential association with language impairment and particularly with pragmatic language deficits (p.83). There are predominantly three types of ADHD children: inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, and combined type (Holland & Higuera, 2015, n.p; Lange et al., 2010, p.253).