Personality is, "the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person" (pg. 438). In part, it is the behaviors that make us unique and set us apart from one another. It is also, what drives us to act consistently in a variety of settings. There are few different theories and approaches to understanding on personality and personality traits and why we behave the way we do Psychoanalytic theory is, Freud 's theory that, "unconscious forces act as determinants of personality" (pg.
Social Learning Theory The first theory, I used to inspect my personal that is Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. This theory has advanced the social cognitive perspective of personality. There are few main concepts of this theory include reciprocal determinism, observational learning and modeling, and self-regulation. His theory emphasizes modeling as a way of learning by observing others and criticizes cultures for providing inappropriate models such as aggression. In his theory, Bandura assumes that people learn from one another, via observation, and imitation and modeling.
Knowledge about cognition emphasizes the appraisal of one’s cognitive process and one’s own awareness; while regulation of cognition takes into account self-regulation and strategies leading to the achievement of self-regulation (Baker & Brown, 1984). Metacognition is significant in reading comprehension, communication, language, self-instruction, acquisition, attention, social cognition, self-control, memory, writing, problem solving, and personality development (Flavell, 1979). Metacognition enables people to learn and acquire the knowledge strategically and deal with new information predominantly (Everson & Tobias, 1998). While different approaches to learning literature have been criticized for failing to pay enough attention to the agency of the learner (Boshier & Huang, 2008; Haggis, 2003), metacognition has been valued as central to self-regulation and accounts of agency in learning (Kluwe 1982, cited in Dunlosky, Graesser, & Hacker,
Observer 2’s report – Rengasamy Darseni Description of personal lens (personal theory of learning) I believe every theory offers a perception of learning, illustrating specific dimension. Each dimension is relevant to various stages of learning. Thus, my personal theory of learning takes an eclectic approach, with emphasis on elements that I feel relevant to my practice. I consider the following definition of Alexander et.al. (2009) conveys my view of learning closely: Learning is a multidimensional process that results in a relatively enduring change in a person or persons, and consequently how that person or persons will perceive the world and reciprocally respond to its affordances physically, psychologically, and socially.
Jean Piaget's and Lev Vygotsky's names are often associated with constructivism school of thought. For Piaget, "learning is a developmental process that involves change , self-regulation, and construction, each building on prior learning experiences"(Kaufman,2004, p.304).However, for Vygotsky(1978),"children's thinking and meaning-making is socially constructed and merges out of their social interactions with their environment"( Kaufman,2004, p.304).Vygotsky's views were given extra attention in the 1990s by an interest to apply his learning theory to the second language learning(SLL) context(Myles & Mitchell, 2004). Since 1980s, the most prominent figure who advocated the relevance of scocio-cultural theory to SLL has been James Lantlof (Lantlof,
After many number of publications of papers, Trait Emotional intelligence was developed. Trait Emotional intelligence is assemblage of emotional self –perceptions located at the lower levels of personality. Trait Emotional intelligence is one’s own perception of own emotional abilities. This model overcomes the criticisms of ability model. It should be studied with the personality design.
Although, the cross tabulation is enormously applicable two segmentation variables, there have been many attempts to solve the higher order interaction problems, for instance (Carmone & Green , 1977) showed how to cope the problem in cross tabulation. The authors firstly postulated an idea of multidimensional contingency table analysis to answer questions of which set of variables should be selected as segmentation bases and if there is any association between those selected variables. They selected four groups of variable mixture of whether or not a consumer is a customer of the firm, customer’s image of his current insurance, psychographic and demographic profiles and assigned them coding with zero and unit and ended up constructing 2×2×2×2 contingency table with 16 cells, we employed log-linear models to test those four categories are associated or not, thus the study showed how to extend the cross tabulation in help of log-linear models. (Heeler & Shields, 1979) also attempted to improve some drawbacks of cross tabulation, which is the sparse-value problem in contingency tables. More precisely, the cross tabulation
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Figure 1: The Theoretical Framework of the Study This thesis entitled The Influence of the Liberated Environment of Polytechnic University of the Philippines to the Lives of the Selected Grade 12 Students of PUP Manila, SY 2017-2018 seeks to conceptualize how a particular environment drives the behavior, how it influences, and how it affects some of its constituents. Thus, it is important for the researchers to find valuable line of study in the form of proved theories to further test and examine its claim. Environment is defined as a place wherein people interact, socialize, and communicate with others. It plays a big and major role upon forming one’s attitude and social integration for them to widen their perspective about a particular matter. Also, environment shapes how a person thinks, analyzes, and make decisions basing it from self-experiences, social norm, and the current status quo.
3.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter addresses the research methodology and procedures used to explore the research problem. The purpose of the study is to explore the impact of lecturer’s negative attitude on the student academic achievement studying at the institute of Venda. The key elements are: research approach, research design, target population, sampling and sampling technique , research instruments, data collection methods, pre-testing data analysis techniques, trustworthiness and ethical considerations. 3.2. Research approach Qualitative research approach is defined as an approach that answers questions regarding the complex nature of the actions with the purpose of describing and understanding human behavior (De Vos, Strydom, Fouche, & Delport, 2011).
The importance of background knowledge and cultural familiarity in the reading process has been discussed within schema theory (Bartlett, 1932; Carrell & Eisterhold, 1983). Schema defined as the background knowledge that enables the reader to make predictions about the text plays a vital role in text interpretation. Therefore a successful comprehension depends on shared schemata and Schema theory is defined as the reader’s ability to use previous knowledge to learn from text and comprehend it (Rumelhart, 1980). It was indicated that Schema theory deals with preexisting knowledge structures or predispose individuals to think and search in their mind and the reader’s ability to make connections between their prior knowledge and the text (Ajideh, 2003; Alderson, 2000; Alptekin, 2006; Anderson, 1999; Carrell, 1983; Carrell & Eisterhold, 1983; Grabe & Stoller, 2002; Johnson, 1981, 1982; Ketchum, 2006; Erten, & Razi, 2009; Murtagh, 1989). The fundamental basic of this theory conveys that written texts do not carry meaning by themselves and it is the reader who gives meaning to texts with the prior