The two concepts that fit best to explain the problem in this study are Hegemonic Masculinity and Behavioral Mimicry. Hegemonic Masculinity delineates the “real men” value in a patriarchal culture, dictated through masculine gender roles such as strength, aggresion, or dominance. Masculinity then becomes a preferable identity inside rock subculture, a nod to the hierarchial concept of identity as explained by Adams and Dickey (2000). This identity hierarchy results in women’s inferior position that further acts as a motivation for women to adhere to masculinity as their ideal role. Further, Behavioral Mimicry concept delineates the process to adapt to masculinity.
Arising from these challenges came a certain crisis of masculinity where traditional and previously unproblematic notions of masculinity were now being seen as problematic (Page, 1999). Masculinity is contexted in gender relations, the practices through which men and women engage, and the effects of these practices in bodily experiences, personality and culture (Connell 1995). Masculinity is interpolated by cultural, historical and geographical location, and in our time the combined influence of feminism and other gender movements has exploded the concept of uniform masculinity. Even sexuality is no longer held to be fixed or inborn. When we relate masculinity to culture it immediately becomes evident that in terms of acting out, masculinity is a varied, movable, even unstable, construction.
The Renaissance’s attitude towards gender and sexuality was completely different from that of the Middle Ages, which considered women as dangerous sexual creatures. "For the first time in Western history," for example, "men stressed the fact that females should be educated. The Platonic orientation in humanist thought may have spurred them to do so" (Bell, 182). (mohja)Actually, the primary purpose behind the call for women’s education was not to heighten her position in society, or to “overturn her subordinate domestic role”, but to make her a better wife and mother. Indeed, it was only the high rank women who were allowed to be educated*.
Conflict Theory (Macro-level) -Emphasizes that the order of society are based on manipulation and control by dominant groups. - Focuses on the struggle of the social classes to maintain dominance and power in social systems. Application – The female superiority model benefits the Mosou women in 2-3 ways. 1. It reduces potential competition from men who are the ‘superior’ sex in other markets and from surrounding areas.
In accordance, Holmes (1995) explains also the way language is used by males is different from that of females : Most women enjoy talking and regard talking as an important means of keeping in touch, especially with friends and intimates. They use language to establish, nurture and develop personal relationships. Men tend to see language more as a tool for obtaining and conveying information (p.2). Moreover, men and women tend to use offensive language differently in a mixed _company.This is reiterated by Coates (2004), who mentions Gomm’s research (1981) in her book which shows that “ both men and women swear more in the company of their own sex and male usage of swear words in particular drops dramatically in a mixed_ sex conversations ” (p.97). In general, males use weaker expletives in the presence of females and they tend to use them sometimes as a strategy to dominate during mixed_gender interaction.
Rituals are therefore considered in these societies as a « natural procedure » in order to become a full « sexualized » member of the society : Initiation traditionally takes place before puberty and transforms a girl into a respectable and marriageable woman and a boy into a tough and strong man. According to Luktkenhaus and Strather, two anthropologists, « These rites are concerned with promoting the transition of boys and girls from an androgynous state of childhood to the gendered and hence sexuality differentiated, state of masculine or feminine adulthood ». However female initiation is accompanied by more ambivalent feelings than male initiations especially because of the practice of female genital cutting, which is usually far more radical than male circumcision. There is a sort of « emotional package » around initiation : The fact that the actual content of initiation rituals are very vague for non-initiated explains that their fears are less important than the desire to be accepted into the community, to be marriageable or the fear to endure pressure or discrimination for not being initiated. In reality once initiated the hardness of pain
When reading Frankenstein people would not typically finish it and say this text has a good sense of feminism that comes along with it. Feminism in Frankenstein is very hard to distinguish, the reader just has to look in the right places. The audience has to really pay attention to the underlying concept that the female gender is important to the overall text of the story. Most people would argue that there really is not an underlying concept of feminism, but the book in itself is a statement of feminism. Even though the book says for Mary from Percy the fact that A women wrote a book back then and it was enjoyed widely and still is today is a shout out to feminism.
“John laughs at me, of course, but one expects that in marriage” (Gilman).This quote implies that by being laughed at, the narrator is being brought down by the male figure. Through Johns action readers can infer that he is very prejudiced against women being that he expresses superiority in his marriage. “He is very careful and loving, and hardly lets me stir without special direction” (Gilman). This reveals that he has complete control over her. Through the use of feminist criticism readers can understand how society viewed women and their beliefs.
Since being the sole economic provider is the core of masculinity politic. However, with the ongoing gender relations, those men’s kodrat have been contested. As a result, within masculinity field, the new man was seen as the contemporary model of masculinity. Compare to the traditional masculinity, the new man has different masculinity attributes. While the traditional masculinity attributes was built as the opposites of femininity, the new man was seen as more tolerant in dealing with femininity.
Abstract: Cultural understanding of sexuality is based on the ideas of behavior and attitudes of men and women in a society. Throughout the ages, male body has been cited as aggressive and women’s sexuality is seen as a response to that aggressive male desire, which later on described as a natural phenomenon. Therefore, from social to psychology, most of the critics believe that sexuality is a social constructed. Every age has its specific ideology of being a man; like, Masculinity in 3000 B.C. was defined by the valour and courage, Medieval masculinity was essentially based on Christianity and chivalric, Victorian masculine ideology was marked with responsible, well behaved, domestic, protective and breadwinners of family, Modern masculinity is broadly defined by family structure.