In a nutshell, situational crime prevention theories assume that greater opportunities lead to more crime also, easier or less risky opportunities attract more perpetrators. Situational prevention theories are greatly influenced by other sociological theories on crime such as rational choice theory, routine activity theory, and crime pattern theory among others. According to rational choice theory, offenders focus on suitable targets while weighing the risks and benefits of their criminal activities in the absence of effective controls before committing any crime. For example, an armed robber will target a wealthy family who have a poor or weak home security system as against a less wealthy family who live in slum notoriously known for lynching criminals. Routine activity theory on the other hand, argues that crime occurs due to the existence of three main variables.
It can help for police resource allocation to create a safe environment. Here the survey of different types of data mining techniques presents for crime hotspot prediction. Keywords – Data mining; crime hotspot; prediction; accuracy; I) INTRODUCTION Crime is a well-known social problem that affecting the quality of life and the economic development of a society. Crime is classically unpredictable . The occurrence of crime has been related to a variety of socio-economic and crime opportunity factors, such as population density, economic investment and arrest rate.
Some will argue that the main causes of the formation of street gang is economic factors and some might equally argue that it is political influences that fuel the formation of street gangs, but it goes beyond the two factors. Social factors which relates to the lifestyle, welfare and dealings of people in a society, have played a significant role in the formation of street gangs in U.S society. Street gangs have become an asylum for the unemployed person who have less options to choose from and are driven by social factors of society .The formation of Street gangs in the United States can be attributed to a myriad of factors such as social marginality, peer pressure and family tradition or history.
THEORETICAL EXPLANATIONS FOR GANG FORMATION Merton, as cited in (Schneider & Tilly, 2004) suggests structural theories significantly emphasize the role of social and economic structures as the causes of delinquent behavior and tend to treat criminal behavior as the result of the undesirable and dysfunctional structures (P. 3) However, to some it is rather unbelievable people who join gangs belong to similar neighborhoods and socioeconomic backgrounds. This paper draws on existing sociological research in identifying a number of theories; this paper will discuss both social structure and social process theories used in explaining how gangs form. According to Hagan, (2008.) Merton’s revision of Durkheim’s concept of the anomie theory speaks about the conditions that occur when differences exist between the things you want to acquire and the available means to get it, Strain being the discrepancy between goals and means (p. 148-149.)
Crime and violence do not just happen, there are rationale as to why a country encounter these acts. Cause of crime and violence in Jamaica are; drugs, gangs/politics, lack of community empowerment and economic deprivation. However, there are strategies being put in place to minimize crime and violence. Chapter two 15 Based on research done, high crime rate in the Jamaica has had a negative impact on tourism arrivals. It is also said that high crime rates in Jamaica are one major decision in which tourists think about before they make a decision to visit the destination.
Do Sociological Factors Play a Role in Juvenile Delinquency? The topic of Juvenile Delinquency is far too complex and it needs to be accessed in the sociological terms to understand the impact of it on today’s youth. This concept has been defined as the criminal behavior being carried out by the Youth or the non-adults. Though it is difficult to define the complete construct in one go, the societal impacts which ensue these behaviors are necessary to be understood. The deviant behavior under juvenile delinquency includes taking drugs, sexual laxities, engaging in fights or in severe cases killing of suicide.
One theory named Sociological theory said that a lot of people commit crimes people they have a lot of strain and struggle in their life (Steven.B, 2015). Geographic theory of crimes said that some people commit crimes because of they live in some specific area that have a lot of crimes or some poor area (Theories of the Causes of Crimes,2009). In those area, the percentage of criminal is more than in other area. Economic theory said that people may like the reward or profit of being criminal, their goal can be money, valuable stuff or power (Theories of the Causes of Crimes,2009). Some people are blind by the power of money, those people if can not control them self, they become criminals.
These allow for the development of the crime groups and allow for the funding of all illicitness that undergoes. Money laundering is the process of concealing the illegal origin of finances and providing a legal front of its achievement. However this is becoming a substantial issue that needs resolution as it plays a role on the financial systems thus impacting economies. Included with the concepts of money laundering is the process of “Hawala” in which money is transferred to an agent in a foreign region, who then informs the agent in the original country or region to pay the final recipient. This is beginning to impact the economies of the world thus it presents the issue, on how it is to be dealt with.
Advancement in technology, increase in political powers and growing economic status have motivated growth of organized crimes. Organized crime entails production and sale of illegal products and services within a given region. Organized crimes has led to loss of both business and business opportunity worldwide. Violence, murder and rape are some of the characters of inhuman activities related to organized crime. Organized crime may be have different results through they all have one focal point of either harming or killing.