It encourages learners to build their own knowledge in order to gain understanding that they may not receive when actively listening in class or reading from a prescribed textbook. “Explains why students do not learn deeply by listening to a teacher, or reading from a textbook” (Roy, 2017). The main theorists that propose Constructivism are John Dewey, Maria Montessori and David Kolb. Constructivism encourages learners to explore the world around in efforts to gain knowledge on particular subjects, thus forming what is known as Discovery Learning in opposition of the children learning passively. An example of a Constructivist activity that may be executed in the classroom is experimentation.
Theoretical Framework This study was anchored on the Constructivist Theory. Constructivism is defined by Cunanan-Cruz (2002) as an educational theory whereby learners construct their own knowledge by a natural ability to think, by learning from the environment, or by combination of both natural ability and environmental influences, where the result is an autonomous, intellectual learner. Constructivism influences instructional theory by encouraging discovery, hands-on, experiential, collaborative, project-based, and task-based learning. It has roots in cognitive psychology and biology and is an approach to education that lays emphasis on the ways knowledge is created while exploring the world. Exemplars of constructivist theory may be found in the works of John Dewey, Maria Montessori and David Kolb.
Tobin (1993) noted that the constructivist approach has become increasingly popular over the last ten years and it therefore represents a paradigm shift in teaching science. Yeany (1991) argued that "an unification of thought, research, curriculum development and teacher training now seems to happen under the theme of construction"(p 1). According to Scott, Asoko, Emberto and Driver (1994), "science learning involves epistemological and conceptual development in a constructivist perspective" (p. 219). Constructivism sees learning as a social and dynamic process in which learners construct meaning from their experiences as part of their previous understandings and the social environment (Driver,Asoko, Leach,Scott and Mortomer, 1994). The
They are active creators of their own knowledge. The effectiveness of this theory is proven by many researches, and one of these studies is that of Tyagi (2013). In his study “Influence of Constructivism in Teaching on Academic Achievement of Primary Students”, the constructivist-based teaching
The most critical factor is the arrangement of stimuli and consequences within the environment Ertmer & Newby (2013) • How Constructivism impacts learning Curriculum- Constructivism calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to the students’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving. Instruction–Under the theory of constructivism, educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information.
In other words, most researches firmly believe that knowledge is constructed, but some (e.g. main stream instructional designers) do not adopt an instructional design that is labelled "constructivist". Typically, a constructivist teaching strategy is based on the belief that students learn best when they gain knowledge through exploration and active learning. Hands-on materials are used instead of textbooks, and students are encouraged to think and explain their reasoning instead of memorizing and reciting facts. Education is centered on themes and concepts and the connections between them, rather than isolated information.
Thus, the concept of learning as a social process and the constructivist approach would provide students with different points of view on a given topic that would make it easy for them to understand difficult topics. The new approach would help educators develop a curriculum that would ensure all the stakeholders benefit from the learning
Investigations on its implications to various fields and levels of education have been undertaken. Findings in various researches suggest that constructivist-based teaching methods ensure better outcomes of the teaching and learning process. The importance of researches on physics education have proven the effectiveness of constructivist approaches in yielding higher achievement of students. In a constructivist learning environment, each student who actively constructs knowledge, develops skills and integrates values. This kind of environment promotes reflective thinking, respecting others’ ideas, having an independent opinion, skillful problem solving, collaborative work, responsibility for one’s conceptions, and community involvement (Jucevičienė, P. & Karenauskaitė, V.,
According to Patterson in her article, “Constructivists believe that prior knowledge impacts the learning process. In trying to solve novel problems, perceptual or conceptual similarities between existing knowledge and a new problem can remind people of what they already know. This is often one's first approach towards solving novel problems. Information not connected with a learner's prior experiences will be quickly forgotten. In short, the learner must actively construct new information into his or her existing mental framework for meaningful learning to occur.” (K, Patterson 1) Cognitivist tend to try and make sure that whatever they are taught that they can connect it to the existing knowledge they have already.
Teacher to teacher relationship is also important. The more that a teacher is comfortable with his co-workers, his teaching career will be made easier as he collaborates with them most especially during tough times (Meador, 2012). To do this, the educator must avoid gossip or hearsay. Aside from that, he must also avoid being critical with regard his co-workers. This way, the educator will surely be comfortable as he works within the school premises on a daily basis.