Employee Engagement has become an important emerging area which has to be looked upon. The extent through employees is committed to the organization and its loyalty towards the organization matters a lot. Different firms have different employee engagement activities conducted. There is efficient implementation of employee engagement activities. The activities may include the leadership development activities, reward schemes, various activities to build culture of the organization and team building activities.
That is, attitudinal commitment exists when “the identity of the person (is linked) to the organization” (Sheldon, 1971, p. 143) or when “the goals of the organization and those of the individual become increasingly integrated or congruent” (Hall et al., 1970, p. 176). Attitudinal commitment thus represents a state in which an individual identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in order to facilitate these goals. As noted by March and Simon (1958), such commitment often encompasses an exchange relationship in which individuals attach themselves to the organization in return for certain rewards or payments from the organization.It is with this second approach to organizational commitment that we 226 mowday. steers, and porter are largely concerned, although our definition will include some aspects of commitment-related behaviors. For purposes of instrument development, organizational commitment was defined here as the relative strength of an individual’s identification with and involvement in a particular organization (Porter & Smith, Note 4).
Affective commitment is verbalized as being the most efficacious quantification of organisational deportment amongst the three. All three components of organisational commitment are negatively cognate to turnover intention with continuance commitment having the most vigorous negative relationship with turnover. However, other studies (Meyer & Smith, 2000; Allen & Meyer, 1996:261) have established a direct sodality between efficacious and normative commitment. It has withal been found that there is a high caliber of overlapping factors that determine, as well as soothsay, outcomes of both types of organisational commitment (Ahmad et al., 2010:586). According to Mckenna (2005:17), identifying where an employee‟s commitment is focused can avail determine the type of commitment an employee feels because it is possible for employees to feel committed to different factors such as a project, the team, the supervisor and the customers.
Empowerment emerged as a vital management practice at various levels of the management in any organization in the recent years. In addition, empowerment significantly affects the work force and/or employees in many ways in any organization. Also, many academic researchers and industrial experts highlighted that empowerment has a strong effect on employees’ job satisfaction which in turn leads to job performance. Therefore, it is very important to conduct a study on how employee empowerment effects the both job satisfaction and job performance. Besides, it is indeed to explore how the above constructs inter-dependent, how strong their relationships in the presence of mediating and moderating variables.
This is also seen as one of the retention strategy of the company. The concept of employee engagement is related to various other concepts such as psychological contract, job satisfaction, employee commitment, motivated employee and can be seen as a new HR fad. In reality employee engagement can be defined as “a degree of an employee’s positive or negative emotional attachment to their job, colleagues and organization which deeply influences their willingness to learn and perform at work.(Survey). An “engaged employee” is one who is completely involved in and enthusiastic about, his or her work and thus act in a way that advances the organizational growth. Engagement is a positive attitude towards the job and it is different from job satisfaction and commitment as it is more temporary and volatile than commitment, which is a more stable perception.
Empowering employees allow organizations to be more elastic and quick to respond and can lead to development in both individual and organizational performance. Similarly, it is keep that employee empowerment is serious to organizational innovativeness and helpfulness. Employee empowerment is more applicable in today’s aggressive environment where knowledge workers are more common and organization are moving towards decentralized, organic type organizational
The outcome of research in the area of organizational commitment that has attempted to answer many of these questions was discussed. Referring to Meyer and Allen (1991), Meyer and Allen (1997) reported that rather than view affective, continuance, and normative commitment as types of organizational commitment, it was more appropriate to view them as components, as employee relationship with their organization may be made up of all three elements to different extents (p. 13). Meyer and Allen pointed out that a number of studies have found affective commitment to be strongly correlated with normative commitment. The implication of the correlation, therefore, they suggested, is that “feelings of affective attachment and sense of obligation to an organization are not independent of one another” (p.
In initial stage organisational commitment was identified by Meyer and Allen (1984) as a construct with two dimensions named as affective commitment and continuance commitment. The first dimension, affective commitment was described by Meyer and Allen (1984) as positive feelings one employee holds while he identifies with or attach to or involve in the work of a certain
For the individual employees, the outcome is directly related to the higher job satisfaction and their commitment at workplace (Holt, Rutherford and Clohessy, 2007) and in the organizational level, the positive result come in terms of profitability and better performance (Zahra and Covin and Garvins, 2000). Lumpkin and Dess (2005) proposed a framework for analyzing the link between firm performance and corporate entrepreneurship. Further they argue that, both financial and non financial measures are important in the study of entrepreneurial outcomes. Both job satisfaction and effective commitment denotes favourable emotion which is derived from the evaluation of job experience and workers’ emotional connection to their organization. Satisfaction and commitment are related to levels of motivation which can be translated into maximum job performance among the organisation’s employees.