It is through culture that people are defined, and share particular value systems. “Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behaviour, acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other as conditioning elements of further action. (1993, p. 36&37) Culture and society are closely related, society consists of people belonging to a particular culture which have a set of universal signs. Language, ideology, cultural products, institutions and organisations make up systemic parts of our culture For example art and classical music is representative of high culture it is through these cultural signifiers that individuals create meaning from their existence.
This is what is known as holism, or the interconnection of all the various parts of culture. This is the integration characteristic of culture. Dynamism is important to a culture. This means
People are in culture and share the culture, interacted with one another within the boundary of culture. Therefore, culture is one of the factors of identity among groups or groups of people or society. According to, (Oslon, 2000), culture is important aspect of being human. It involves shared beliefs, values and attitudes of a group of people. Moreover, it entails ways in which relationships and marital and sexual relationship are structured.
Culture Culture is learned and shared behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values, and material objects that characterize a particular group or society. While society is a group of people that has lived and worked together long enough to become an organized population and o think of themselves as a social unit. The characteristics or culture is learned, transmitted from generation to generation, it’s shared, is also adaptive and always changing. Culture can be broken up into two such Material Culture and Non-material Culture; Material Culture consist of the tangible objects that people in society make, use and share like furniture, jewelry. While Nonmaterial culture deals with the way people interpret and understand the world; some example of these
First part of this essay will be concentrated on the theory, of how culture is affected by the US’ influence and how it changes the PR practitioners’ approach. The second part will concentrate on the way PR practitioners have to adjust their methods of approaches to suit the culture. This would show the significance of culture within PR practices. As both local and national aspects of culture are a part of a bigger international global culture that is rapidly taking shape.
Cultures are very important in understanding them in a work environment. Since always national cultures have always generated different cultural value systems. Value systems are normally generated by different factors such as :a specific coception or specific beliefs which can be shaping a particular society. Cultures can differ from each other and each of them have different standards such as different behaviors towards a scene,traditions or even the way the comunication is dealt. These type of standards can sometimes be seen irrelevant by some people or even a threat by others bringing sometimes cultural gaps in a worforce.
Culture according to oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is the customs and beliefs, art, way of life and social organization of a particular country or group. Culture refers to the customs, practices, languages, values and world views that define a social group. Cultural identity therefore is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is a part of a person’s self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class or any kind of social group that has its own distinct culture. According to Pratt, as a ‘historical reservoir’, culture is an important factor in shaping identity.
With the above premise, this essay, starts with an explanation of how people and their behaviour are perceived based on their nationality. Following that, the managerial skills required for intercultural communication are discussed. Finally, the various factors be considered in intercultural communication and their complexity is outlined. 2. Relation between nationality and cultural identity Identity is a combination of how individuals or groups perceive themselves and how other individuals or groups view them.
(Wendt, 1995) Wendt’s analysis focuses on interaction between states in the international system and disregards the role of domestic factors. (Wendt, 1995) Conversely, Martha Finnemore has proposed another version of constructivist in her 1996 book, “National Interests in International Society”. State behavior is determined by identity and interest. Identity and interests are determined by international forces: by the norms of behavior rooted in international society. The norms of international society are transferred to states through international organizations.
In international relations, constructivism is regarded to be the starting point of the institutionalization of values that leads to the development of collaborative behaviors within the international society. Constructivism is a structural theory of the international system which is based on the following main principles: 1. States are considered the primary actors of study for international political theory; 2. The principal structures in the states system are intersubjective rather than material; 3. State identities and interests are a major part produced by these social structures, rather than generated exogenously to the system by human nature or national politics.