However, in postmodern fictions there is other attempting to define the concept of gender identity in light of the psychological perception. Carter’s postmodern feminist assumption emphasizes the role of the psychological aspects in forming individual’s gender identity. For example, in School of Sympathy (1948) Nancy Roberts defines identity as, “who we think we are who we tell our-selves we are or ought to be” (p. 19). She suggests that gender identity is a sense that we try to form. Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19).
With the concerns that Chopin had for the freedom of the women and the social part of their relationship with men and had decided to show her concerns through the novel. especially her concern with women 's issues. It clearly reflects a comment she once made regarding her writing: a desire to "describe human existence in its subtle, complex, true meaning, stripped of the veil with which ethical and conventional standards have draped it." The Awakening does exactly that" (Timko). The Awakening was written based on Kate Chopin however more her concerns on women 's issues.
The journal entitled “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of the International Human Rights –Friends or Foes”, written by Oonagh Reitman is a good fully equipped critical journal since the author put the focus on the discussion about the similarity between two branches of international human rights, the cultural relativist and the feminist in term of their critiques towards the international human rights and also present the fact of the clash between these two critiques when talking about women’s human rights. This critical review paper will provide a summary of the journal by Oonagh Reitman and more importantly giving arguments of evaluation, comments as well as suggestions to Reitman’s writings itself. Summary The journal is well organized by the author. Reitman has divided the journal into 3 sections to answer how these critiques from two different branches of the international human rights, the cultural relativism and the feminism, clash each other in term of women’s international human rights. The first section contains the examination of cultural relativism argument related to the human rights of women.
I argue that one’s internal sense of their inborn gender identity influences how one will outwardly express their gender in society. I disagree with Butler’s stance that there is no identity behind expression, because I believe that gender expression is an outward reflection of one’s internal reality, which leads to my final point. My final argument against Butler is that humans are in control of their gender expression. I argue that humans have the ability to create their gender expression. Whether it be clothing and personal style, mannerisms and personality traits, or interests and jobs, I believe that humans ultimately make the conscious decision to choose these gendered characteristics in accordance with their gender identity.
“For many of us it seems that to be a feminist in the way that we have seen or understood feminism is to confirm to an identity and a way of living that does not allow for individuality, complexity, or less than perfect personal histories.” (Rebecca Walker quoted by Akaas and McCabe 2006: 71). Third wave feminism is mainly concerned about breaking boundaries, by celebrating issues such as class, sexuality, ethnicity, identity, sexual orientation, and the like (Rampton, 2014). It is argued that reality is considered not so much in positions of permanent structures and power relations, but in terms of performance within possibilities (Rampton, 2014). In other words, third wave feminists believe in their own strengths and look forward to having the luxury of choice – something earlier feminists thought was only reserved for men (Hatton & Trautner, 2013:
Queer theory was developed by Judith Butler in her post-modern feminist text, “Gender Trouble: feminism and the subversion of identity” (Horitar, 2015). She discussed the role that gender and sexual orientation play in the way in which society uses this concepts in order to place individuals in a specific category on the basis on how they behave (Guantlett, 1998; Horitar, 2015). This theory examines the diverse ways in which current beliefs serves to reintegrate societal anticipations of gender identity, appearance and sexuality, it also offers a negotiation for the fragmentation of constructed gender categories (Horitar, 2015). According to Western society, sex defines your particular gender (feminine or masculine) which in turn defines your true identity, for example a biological female is considered to be a women who is anticipated, by their society, to be more sensitive and nurturing than a man and who needs a sensual relationship with the opposite sex (Horitar, 2015). This notion was rejected by Butler because according to her gender should be regarded as a performance and not as a category (Guantlett, 1998; Horitar, 2015).
Feminist analysis starts from the significance of gender, gender maybe understood in different kinds of ways but all feminist analyses take gender seriously and when they are thinking about gender they are thinking about ways in which the world can be organized into gender categories such as masculinity and femininity, and the feminists are thinking of ways in which those categories are operating in the terms of hierarchy and in some ways institutionalize and perpetuate some kinds of inequalities. Feminist analysis start from gender as a hierarchical or relational category and it tries to look at the world in that perspective. The feminist theories in international relations were introduced in the late 1980s and early 90’s (cite) and the early
In a third and final point, we’ll consider that both gender studies and feminism should be studied separately because gender studies goes further and takes into account sexual characteristics and oppression in general rather than only social oppression towards a biological sex, being women. Gender is something different from social movements. Indeed, in general, gender studies bring to a reflexion on what is being a male and what is being a female according to time and places. The main goal of these studies is to observe how a sex is supposed to reproduce a common thinking and acting according to its societal past. According to Joan Scott, one of the main and first theorists of gender studies: "In grammar, gender is understood to be a way of classifying phenomena, a socially agreed upon system of distinctions rather than an objective description of inherent traits.
Abstract Colonialism/Postcolonialism is a remarkably comprehensive yet accessible guide to the historical and theoretical dimensions of colonial and postcolonial studies. National fantasies are they colonial, anti-colonial or postcolonial also play upon the connection between woman, land or nation. Feminist theory and postcolonial theory are occupied with similar questions of representation, voice, marginalization, and the relation between politics and literature. Given that both critical projections employ multidisciplinary perspectives, they are each attentive, at least in principle, to historical context and the geopolitical co-ordinates the subject in question. The identification of women as national mother stems from a wider association of nation with the family.
The theory focuses on explaining why women are oppressed and highlights ways states can be deconstructed to equally represent women nationally and internationally. First of all, it is essential to establish the understanding that Feminist theory is constructed from what is known as core international relations feminism, and the four-variant feminist international relations: liberal feminism, critical feminism, postcolonial feminism, and post-structural feminism, these theories branches off of the core theory. Each theory applies a different understanding to how feminism might be applied to certain fields and situations; like how feminism might be applied to an international situation like the Arab Spring. Therefore, understanding core feminist theory is essential to understanding feminism as a whole. As well, majority of the current international relation theories are masculine in nature, feminism is a political tool that struggles to free all women from the oppressive nature of patriarchy.