Although there has been a growing awareness for the protection of environment but appropriate steps has not been taken yet at the international level. The term Environmental Right has not been fully recognized by the international forums for human rights. Although the judicial decisions of different states as well as the writings of different jurists recognizes the environmental right as a human right but at the international level it is still
Part two: Human Rights Human rights The office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights provides a concise, yet conclusive definition of what are human rights, as being: rights inherent to all human beings, whatever their nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status. Everyone is equally entitled to their human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. It then adds that Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act
However, for the need of localizing the international human rights norms, there still need some sources that can justify the universal human rights from the bottom-up perspective. Cultural diversities has been bound to the implementation of human rights. 1. Cultural relativism with specific assumption rejects the universal demand of human rights 2. Universalists, also, worry about the human rights feasibility in a different culture.
Why does environmental ethics matter? ‘The essence of an environmental crisis is a cultural and value crisis’ (Zheng, 2012, p. 89). Environmental ethics concern the study of ethical questions that arise in the relationships between humans and the non-human environment (Palmer, McShane, & Sandler, 2014). Whilst many different environmental philosophies exist anthropocentrism is the one most dominant in western culture and has important implications in terms of sustainability (Hens & Susanne, 1998; Palmer, McShane, & Sandler, 2014). To illustrate the importance of environmental ethics this essay will discuss anthropocentrism and demonstrate how its manifestation has meant that there are limited constraints placed upon how humans may use the environment (Hens & Susanne, 1998).
In this case, human rights law is responsibility by governments to act in certain ways. Government can promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in individuals or groups.Their fundamental assumption is a moral and rational being who deserves to be treated with dignity. The content of human rights are universal. People should respect the common standard of human rights. Those common standard are represent in the country people need to respect the standard human rights.
The broad categories of "natural resources" and "environmental quality" include such areas as air and water pollution, forests and wildlife, hazardous waste, agricultural practices, wetlands, and land-use planning. In the United States, some of the more widely known environmental laws are the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, and the Endangered Species Act. Distinguishing between Hard and Soft International Law A distinction is often made between hard and soft international law. Hard international law generally refers to agreements or principles that are directly enforceable by a national or international body. Soft international law refers to agreements or principles that are meant to influence individual nations to respect certain norms or incorporate them into national law.
Human ecology is the environment, or context, influences the way people live and their health outcomes for better or for worse. I.e. can be positive or negative impacts on the health of individuals. (Goldsteed R. et al, 2011). Urbanization is the process whereby populations move from rural to urban areas, enabling cities and towns to grow.
Human rights are mandated to protect citizens and to ensure that all citizens are catered for. However as we go about life, we begin to realise that human rights do not protect all of us, they may protect us as citizens however some of the rights in reality are contradictory and hence there are issues within the realm of human rights. Culture takes various forms across time and space. This diversity is personified in the uniqueness and multitude of the identities of the groups and societies making up humankind. As a source of exchange, modernization and creativity, cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature.
Environmental law: this law degree looks at laws that regulate the impact of human activities on the environment. This means that it covers a wide range on the Earth from the sea to land and everything that is in it. The reason this career could make a positive contribution to the future is that the environment in today’s world is ever changing as there is rapid climate change, biodiversity loss and ocean acidification. The reason for most of this stuff that is happening is because as humans we are never satisfied with what we have. An example of this is that we keep cutting down trees for paper also cutting down the amazon forest can have huge implications on the environment as you can endanger animals and plants and even worse animal or plant extinction which could/ will have a ripple on the ecosystem.
Protection of Environment Where protection of life and personal liberty is guaranteed under Art. 21 of the Constitution of India, the state is under an obligation to improve public health, to the protection and development of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Citizens have fundamental duty to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creature. A cleaner environment is conducive to health and life. But in our country though there are above 200 central and state statutes having at least some concern with environment protection, their enforcement has been tardy and ineffective, rendering the said legislation’s mere dead letters.