In a way, it might even be seen as a sort of relativist perspective because the gods could develop their own beliefs and commands and change them accordingly and they must always be right. This is what makes Socrates’ claim so essential, it calls into question the Divine Command Theory and questions the real origin of morality. Human civilizations have been going to the gods for their guidance since the beginning of time, but Socrates’ brings insight that stumps the “smart” Euthyphro. In a certain way, this one question can poke a hole in an individual’s view and traditions of religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It is the spring board for disciplines and studies into religious apologetics, because this question that might seem innocuous at first proves to be incredibly powerful.
Rudolph Otto prioritizes the non-rational as offering a truer understanding of religion because he claims the core of all religious life revolves around experiences and feeling, not simply rational thought. Overall, the rational is but an attempt to define the undefinable. To understand Otto’s rejection of the rational, the rational must be understood. “Rational,” in The Idea of the Holy, refers to the conceptualization of religion and the divine itself. Otto’s basic definition of the rational stems from the establishment and application of concepts evidenced in “they can be grasped by the intellect; they can be analyzed by thought; they even admit of definition.
In the novel Akhenaten: Dweller in Truth, the main character, Akhenaten, is strongly connected to religion and the main theme of the novel is religion. In the play, Equus, the main character, Alan, is also very connected to his religion. Alan and Akhenaten both let their religious views play such huge roles in their lives, which ultimately leads to their downfalls. While on the surface, the religion of both Akhenaten and Alan have stark contrasts, once digging deeper similarities begin to appear. The religions of the two characters aren’t similar in practice, but in the formulation of the religions, the two characters both project their issues into the foundation of the religion.
They agree that religion has the power to introduce and change social Norms. Norms refer to common and agreed ways of behavior in various social activities. (McDonald, 2006, p. 14) The difference of opinion on whether this was a positive or negative can be read in the quotes below: “If Religion has given birth to all that is essential in society, it is because the idea of society is the soul of religion” Emile Durkheim “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.” Karl Marx As both sociology perspectives also differ greatly and often contradict each other I will use the following questions (Used by O’Donnell) to explain the many differences between Functionalism and Marxism. (McDonald, 2006, p. 19) How is society constructed?
Morality has been identified with adherence to godliness and divine, immorality with sin, and the moral law with the command of God so that the moral life is seen as a direct and personal relationship with the ultimate one. It is taught that to act immorally is to disobey God. Whether it is a Shiite Muslim fighting a holy war in the name of Allah, a Hindu killing an innocent animal as a sacrifice to bring rain, or the Christian giving to charity in the name of Christ, religion has changed the idea of morality as indiscriminate from religion. There have been exceptions: Confucianism in China is essentially a secular system, there are nontheist versions of Buddhism, and the philosophers of Greece contemplated
Immanuel Kant’s Impact on Enlightenment Values For thousands of years, religion was used to help answer universal phenomenon’s. It wasn’t until Greek philosopher’s, such as Socrates and Aristotle, around 300 – 400 BC, started challenging religious ideals and looking at reason in the senses. These Greek philosophers, set the foundation and influenced many philosophers to come. Centuries later, a philosopher name Immanuel Kant, dedicated his life to find the parallels between the natural world and rational thinking. Yet, connections between Kant and other philosophers can be made with their collaborative ideas on acceptable political discussion and disobedience.
Thesis Statement: Origin of Morality Outline A.Universal Ethics 1.Karl Barth, The Command of God 2.Thomas Aquinas, The Natural Law 3.Thomas Hobbes, Natural Law and Natural Right 4.Immanuel Kant, The Categorical Imperative B.Morality and Practical Reason 1.Practical Reason a.Practical Reason and Practical Reasons C.Evolution of Morality 1.What makes Moral Creatures Moral 2.Explaining the Nature of Moral Judgments F. Answering Questions 1. What is the origin of Morality: Religion or Philosophy? 2. What does religion say about morality? 3.
Another Milestone that effects the way we define the notion of “Good and Evil” is largely based on our religion. Therefore, the way we see right from wrong, heaven and hell, light and darkness, Good vs. Evil and God and the Devil comes from the moral criterion that we attempt to apply to our worldviews. However, given the conspicuous contrasts amongst religions, ranging from Christianity to Islam to Judaism. Many people believe that due to the simple fact of religious diversity, this provides the basis to discredit any assumption of moral truths.
In another words his religion is far from pure intellectual and what is very crystal clear is that for him religion is not institutional but individual. Philosophy Philosophical aspects are the integral parts of the transcendentalism for sure and excluding Emerson from this idea is not fair for both side either for transcendentalism or Emerson. People of his time had a kind of pure spiritual believes and Emerson specifically wanted to find a philosophical foundation in which people can feel the presence of the divine elements in their soul. In this respect he attempts to make a comparison between the ideal and the real. He was interested mostly in philosophical system in a way that intuition is at its origin and the moral conclusion is at the end.
Religion plays a vital role in imparting meaning and explanation on the existence and purpose of mankind. It has been an elemental aspect of many societies across different time periods. Religious beliefs and practices affect everything from an individual level such as personal ethics, to a larger scale such as national and international politics. However, what exactly does religion provide? What needs does it serve?