Gender identity is a product of social construction and, at the same time is one of the key factors that mediate the behavioral activity and the installation of the individual in the context of interpersonal relationships. In terms of socio-constructivist approach, social reality is both objective and subjective. It is objective because it is independent of the individual and is subjective because the individual is constantly creating them. Within this approach, gender is understood as an organized model of social relations between men and women, the constructed basic institutions of society. The theory of the social construction of gender is based on two principles.
Functionalists suggest that in order for the society to logically develop and survive, there must be coordination amongst individuals who build up a society as a structure; this coordination is constituted by norms and values (Blackledge & Hunt, 1985). In this essay I will discuss what is meant by functionalists when they say order is achieved and maintained in society through basic values. However for us to understand this we need to have background knowledge of what functionalism is, what makes it possible for the society to function, how it develops and benefits the society. In relation to this I will outline all the components that contribute to the functionalists’ perspective about the society and its functioning system. One may ask, what holds the society together?
SOCIOLOGICAL SCHOOL Imp Theorist: Roscoe Pound, Montesquieu The sociological school of law is among the many theories that were framed by numerous scholars from time to time. The significance of individuals was proclaimed by theorists and scholars. The sociological school came about with the inevitability to stabilise and promote the welfare of the civilisation and the individual. There was an inclination towards socialization. Thus, the importance of the society should be measured in light of the individual and the importance of the individual should be considered in light of the society.
Core values and the principles that stem from them, must be poised within the framework and intricacy of the human experience Values are strong beliefs about how the world should, how people should typically behave and the inclination over conditions of life. All professions have a set of value preferences that gives meaning and direction. Professional values, however, are not separate from societal values. Rather, professions take up certain societal values and society in turn offers sanctions to professions through supportive legislation, funding, delegation of responsibilities for certain societal functions and tools for ensuring that those functions are satisfactorily discharged. Wide-ranging societal values in a country may be reflected, for example, in the laws of the land which declare and ensure certain human rights of the people.
Introduction Communitarianism emphasizes the need to balance individual rights and interests with that of the community as a whole, and argues that individual people (or citizens) are shaped by the cultures and values of their communities. A theory or system of social organization based on small self-governing communities, an ideology which emphasizes the responsibility of the individual to the community and the social importance of the family unit. What is Communitarianism In the social theory commutity has always been a central theme and has had central and prominent place. There arise alot of problems out of the the theme of social theory for example; how do the individual make a collective whole? Is it possible to identify an ideal of
Such a distinction assists in the determination of the validity of rules without considering subjective morals. According to Hart, primary rules refer to the legal rules which impose duties and obligations on society and which in turn guide our behaviours. Alternatively, secondary rules are those rules which provide a criteria of validity through which the primary rules may be modified, introduced or enforced. According to Hart, a society with only primary rules will face various challenges, but such challenges can be remedied through the following three categories of secondary rules; rules of recognition, rules of change and rules of adjudication. The secondary rules are social rules and are essential to assist with the validity of primary rules.
Introduction Have you ever pondered over why different theorists are obsessed with the question of what the law is and what is its character? In my perspective this obsession is driven by the realization that laws and the rule adopted by any community are the primary determinants of how the people in that society fair socially, politically, economically, and even in the private spheres of their lives. Rousseau theory of the social contract goes beyond merely describing the process of developing and implementing laws, to the relationship between states and the people to expounding on how these societies are formed and how the law is sustained through the different systems of governments and doctrines such as the sovereignty of people and the
Self-efficacy is based in a great theoretical framework known as Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), in which there are bidirectional communications between the cognitive, behavioral and environmental or situational contexts (Wood & Bandura, 1989). Self-efficacy beliefs are not a stable attribute of an individual, but they are an active and learned system of beliefs held in context. The thought of self-efficacy is interested with judgments of one’s ability to produce a given pattern of behavior (Schunk, 1981). Social cognitive hypothesis is developed from the view of human agency. In this view, individuals are measured as factors who are contained in their own progression and, by means of their actions, they are able to make things happens.
(k)ollektive Akteure verfügen über eine kollektive Intentionalität, die sich – idealtypisch – alle individuellen Akteure gegenseitig zuschreiben. Mit diesem Schritt besteht noch die Möglichkeit, kollektive Intentionalität im kognitiven System von individuellen sozialen Akteuren zu verankern“ (Brühl 2015: 76). The above mentioned description of social actors, their actions and their consequences on social reality is central for this thesis and especially in the choice of what methodology and research design in order to reconstruct or in other word assess the role of the collective actor’s role in the social reality. In other words it is a process from intention and action and the consequence. That is the reason I have chosen the methodological approach called Process tracing”.
It is the range, balance and interaction between rights and responsibilities and the extent to which these are implicitly or explicitly stated and accepted or challenged. They reflect our social values and beliefs about the way we expect people to behave and relate to each other, what degree of freedom and / or control they have and what degree of accountability we expect in return. Both employers and employees have formal rights and responsibilities under discrimination, privacy, work health and safety