The concern of the study is to know the long-term result of MBCT with the use of standardized measures of depressions (BDI-II), mindfulness (MAAS), and rumination (RSS) and the outcomes are collected yearly for 3 years. Thirty-nine participants were observed and the results showed a significant decrease in depression. Although the depression scores for the last year increased, it was still inside the normal range of BDI-II. Rumination and mind attention showed a strong negative correlation which means as rumination increases, the mind attention decreases and vice versa. It was therefore concluded that continued MBCT aids and training can help relapse prevention.
Life expectancy Life expectancy is an average number of years that a person can expect to live in "full health" by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury (WHOStat 2006). Crude Death/Mortality Rate (CDR) Crude Death Rate or Crude Mortality Rate is the total number of deaths to residents in a specified geographic area such as a country divided by the average total population for the same geographic area for a specified time period and multiplied by 100,000. The term crude means it does not account for age, sex or other variables in any aspects of death. CRUDE DEATH RATE=(Total deaths per year)/(Average Total population of that year) X 100 000 CAUSE-SPECIFIC DEATH RATE Cause-specific death
Cancer is diagnosed each year in about 175,000 children ages 14 and under worldwide. Cancer is the leading cause of death by disease past infancy for U.S. children. However, thanks to better therapies, more than 80% of U.S. childhood cancer patients now become long-term survivors. Survival rates can vary depending on the type of cancer. About 420,000 childhood cancer survivors live in the U.S., with much more around the world (St. Jude Children 's Research Hospital) this shows that cancer is one major diagnosed disease found in children under the age of 15.
The researcher tried to decrease the dosage of the medicine (co-trimoxazole) that is being used to prove that the medication or the treatment of pneumonia to the children between 24 months old and 59 months old. There are different results that was gathered after giving the ill children the decreased dosage co-trimoxazole, the first and second result of the placebo trial was proven effective but reducing again the dosage of the medicine on the third attempt resulted to 22.9% failure. Despite of the failure, researchers continue to relapse the study and eventually the last few trials of the placebo effect was proven effective. In this case, out of 1200 respondent, 87 still suffers from fast breathing or “pneumonia”, 4 were suffering from chest drawing which is also called in medical as “severe pneumonia”, 4 had lethargy or “very severe pneumonia” and 7 are still taking the prescribed antibiotic treatment. (Lupisan et al.,
Hence,The study was undertaken to evaluate the ““EFFICACY OF PULMONARY REHABILITATION PROGRAM VS. HIGH FREQUENCY NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION EMPHASIZING LOWER LIMB MUSCLE TRAINING IN SEVERE COPD PATIENTS” EPIDEMIOLOGY OF COPD: In the United States, COPD accounted for 19,054 deaths in 2000, ranking as the fourth leading cause of death and the only major disease among the top 10 in which mortality continues to increase.5–8 In persons 55 to 74 years of age, COPD ranks third in men and fourth in women as cause of death.9 However, mortality data underestimate the impact of COPD because it is more likely to be listed as a contributory cause of death rather than the underlying cause of death, and it is often not listed at all.10,11 Death rates from COPD have continued to increase more in women than in men.5 Severity of COPD For consistency throughout the document, the panel used the description of severity of COPD as recommended by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease18 and the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Guidelines19 based on FEV1, as follows: stage I
The range of BMI also depends on age and also diseases suffered by an individual. Based on CDC, BMI is not the diagnostic tool to determine whether the individual is underweight, normal or obese. It should be measured based on body fat percentage and overall health risk. Based on BMI range, an individual is considered overweight if their BMI is 25 to 29.9. This increases the risk of diseases especially cardiovascular diseases.
About 525,000 of those individual is the first attack, while 210,000 of them have had а previous heart attack (Mozaffarian et al., 2015). In the United States, heart disease affect individuals of most ethnicities, including whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. Heart disease is the second leading cause of death after cancer among American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Pacific Islanders. In the United States, heart disease affect individuals of most ethnicities, including whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. Heart disease is the second leading cause of death after cancer among American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Pacific Islanders.
the Figure 1.a Illustrates entry of patients during the period of the study the symbol ((▌ refers to that, the letter (D) indicates the occurrence of the event (i.e death), while the symbols (L) refers to the last follow-up, and (A) indicates that the patient is still alive after the end of the study. As for figure 1.b, the data are displayed in the form of survival analysis where death is the event of interest ,the letter (D) indicates the occurrence of the event like the patients 2, 6 and 7, and the patients who did not die and the last follow-up, are considered right-censored (C) such as 1,3,4 and
Cardiovascular diseases are the worldwide health care issue representing 30% of mortalities. Heart valve diseases are life threatening affecting ~2.5% of the general population in economically developed countries (V.T. Nkomo et al. 2006). Approximately 100,000 heart valve replacements are performed each year in the U.S.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide ( Reddy 1993; Lloyd-Jones et al. 2009). According to WHO, 23.6 million deaths each year by 2030 are caused by cardiovascular disease. In Malaysia, diseases of the circulatory system are the leading cause of death in Ministry of Health (MoH) Hospitals in 2012. 40, 000 new cases per year for 28 million people in this country while for number of CAD cases for young people which is below 45 years old is increased every year.
In the United States it is estimated that there are approximately 24 million adults with COPD (Pietrangelo, 2015). COPD is one of the leading causes of hospital admissions and one in five COPD patients who are discharged from the hospital will be readmitted within 30 days. In the United States COPD is the third most common cause of death and in 2010 it cost the United States $49.9 billion (Pietrangelo,
Years of potential life lost is a calculation of the “weighted total of the number of deaths by age, with the weight for each age determined by the particular method of valuing potential remaining years of life (Gardner, J. and Sanborn, J).” In addition, years of potential life lost is used to “emphasize deaths at younger ages (Gardner, J. and Sanborn, J).” According to Changing the U.S. Health Care System, “the two largest contributors to the disproportionately high YPLL rate among African Americans are cancer and heart disease (2014).” Cancer is the most important contributor to YPLL because it is the “second leading cause of death but accounts for the largest YPLL per 100,000 for both males and females (Healthy People
The data showed increased levels of depressive symptoms at 1 year were statistically associated with poorer functioning in all physical and mental health HRQOL domains (Abraham et. al., 2014). Also, PTSD at 1 year was statistically associated with all HRQOL domains, except role-physical. This further supports the notion that trauma patients in gerneral suffering from depression and/or PTSD have poorer physical
A comparison of rates of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by ethnicity and race disclosed that in 2010 the AAs diagnosed for diabetes were 13.2% of 29.1 million Americans (ADA, 2014). AA adults have the highest mortality rate from DM in individuals less than seventy years of age than other ethnic groups (Tancredi, et al., 2015). In 2010, diabetes mellitus has caused the deaths of 69,071 people in the United States with total percentage deaths of all males (48.2%) and females (51.4%). In 2013, their mortality rate accounted for 21.2 deaths per 100,000 populations (CDC, 2015). This alarming statistics have proven that AA adults at risk for T2DM are in a greater need for EB interventions that will be championed by the advanced practice nurses