His father named Mohammad Taqi Shariati was a reform minded cleric and lived his life by doing lecture in his own religious hall (Bayat, a: 1990). His father strong advocacy for reforms in Iran had influenced Shariati’s intellectual mind the most. Despite their family including his father being shiites, the conservative Ulama of Iran accused his father as a Sunni Muslim and a Wahhabi (Abrahamian, 1982). Wahabbi the ideologue of Sunni Saudi Arabia, is Iran’s enemy in terms of propagation of religion due to some differences although both are Muslims. The major difference between Sunni and Shi’a is the issue of who succeeds Prophet Muhammad.
In 1939, Reza Shah’s unveiling declaration sparked a worldwide debate as to what the veil actually symbolizes. Ever since the beginning of Islam, women throughout the Islamic world have had to adopt the hijab as part of their cultural and religious attire due to various interpretations of the Islamic dress code. In addition, the Koran emphasizes purity in the name of Islam by asking both men and women to be modest when it comes to the way they dress. Furthermore, in his efforts to modernize Iran, Reza Shah failed to satisfy the needs of his people, as he gave women no say in what they could and could not wear in public. This eventually resulted in the division of Iranian women, as there were those who favored the Islamic tradition, and those who supported the regime and its adoption of Western values.
The twentieth century witnessed the rise of elites and governments in the Islamic world, focused on modernizing and westernizing their respective states and social structures (Webb 2005, p.100). Mustapha Kemal in Turkey, Habibullah and Amanullah in Afghanistan, and Reza Shah in Iran are just a few examples hereof. In general, these leaders shared the common goal of discouraging traditional practices, which they generally viewed as archaic, and instead want to introduce modern institutions that would serve to integrate their countries and economies into the international community and the emerging global economy (Webb 2005, p.100). In Iran, these westernizing elements have constituted one side of a fierce conflict between modernism and traditionalism,
Also, a few of the university students could speak English as they had been studying in foreign countries thanks to their scholarships and sabbaticals. Also, Iran had good relationship with the USA and the UK which let a lot of English speaking tourists to come and visit Iran. After the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1978, the country experienced a lot of changes and new needs came into existence. When the Supreme Leader and the founder of the Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, announced that there is a need to export the findings of the Islamic Revolution and emphasized on the importance of learning foreign languages, it was expected to see foreign language learning in general and EFL learning in particular to be one of Iran’s top priorities. However, the story was not that
This figure is taken into account in most Most of the related studies on Iran consider this figure. However, this figure is contested by non-Shiite groups, particularly by the Sunnites who regard themselves as the second majority group rather than a ‘religious minority’. They criticize the Shiite religious authorities with high political powers for their unwillingness to provide accurate information about the denominational map of Iran. As one of such critics Dr. Noorzi makes the following points:
First, Shi Huangdi had the power to do just about kind of punishment to his people. He could either kill them, or he could send them on one of his ambitious building projects such as the Great Wall of China. Also, Shi Huangdi had so much power that no one would even dare to question his actions. If his actions were questions, Shi Huangdi would have punished the person questioning him. Finally, Shi Huangdi felt he had so much power that he should be protected for the afterlife.
The protest did not replace the form of government but instead left only the dead bodies of many that tried to over throw the government. The United States showed their depreciation of China by cutting off military sales and implementing economic sanctions. On the other hand, the 1911 Xinhai revolution brought great success after Sun Yat Sen and many other influential people such as Yuan Shikai led the protesters of China to overthrow the Qing dynasty and brought an end to Puyi’s time in his throne. This gave hope and dreams to many people and was a bench mark for the civilians of
Soon after the revolution, Iran became one bundle of chaos as the country began experiencing internal difficulties with the new republic. Then, with the war between Iran and Iraq, violence became Marji’s daily lifestyle. The Iranians were left to themselves to protect their friends and family from the bombings and other types of violence occuring in plain sight. Many unfortunate individuals lost their belongings as well as close friends and family. For example, a close friend of Marji’s mother, Mali (and her family), lost their belongings in a serious bombing.
One can view Islam as a terrorist religion, while another can view Islam as a peaceful religion. Neither perspective is wrong of Islam because perspective can be influenced by environment, personal experience, society, family, and a variety of other factors. This is why Marjane Satrapi’s unique influences affect her perspective on how she portrays imperialism, social classes, and revolution in her life and the book Persepolis. The photograph shows the United States and Europe taking the natural resources out of Africa. Imperialism is represented in the picture because it shows how the more powerful countries extend their influence to get Africa’s resources and just take it out all for themselves.
Kate Sherd Daniel Coffman Geography 3/16/18 Country Analysis Paper: Iran Introduction/ History: Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical urban settlements dating back to 4000 BC. Iran used to be known as Persia until 1935 when it became known as the Islamic republic. Iran won its independence in April of 1979 following the triumph of the Islamic Revolution, led by Ayatollah Khomeini who was the founder of Iran as an Islamic Republic. He was an Iranian Shia Muslim (religious leader and politician). Following the revolution, he became the Supreme leader which he held until his death in 1989.