Critical Summary Cindy Cruz’s “Toward an epistemology of a brown body” addresses the absence of educational research regarding the “brown body” and sexual orientation of Latinx. Cruz discusses her experience as a lesbiana and not knowing there was a possibility that anyone else in her family shared her orientation. She reflects on her grandmother’s funeral and how she became aware of the “generations of queers” that surrounded her (Cruz 2001, 658). Knowledge of the brown body, Cruz claims, comes from mothers and grandmothers and from the actions of past women of color. Stories about the brown body experiences are often dismissed due to the fact that they are performed rather than explained, and the theoretical aspect of these accounts exists outside of our present reality (Cruz 2001, 659).
“She must have caught me gazing at our picture of the Good Shepherd, talking to his lambs. Beside him hung the required portrait of El Jefe, touched up to make him look better than he was.” The Catholic Church represents Western Ideology in the time of the cold war, they actively fought against the Communists even at the expense of the innocent and truth, in the many other cases like this one in the Dominican Republic. Painting an illegitimate figure into the society of those faithful should dilute the organization’s worthiness of claiming a connection to the higher power. However, the Catholic Church isn’t weakened, it has remained in its high state of power even after false prophets and manipulation. With this in mind it 's a subtle hint to question if our blind faith is truly legitimate in the eyes of a monotheistic entity.
The doctrinal differences mentioned in the prayers were part of that conflict. When examining three of these differences in doctrine, and how Calvin’s prayers from the Commentary on Hosea touch on the subject, one can clearly see how the prayers illustrate the conflict between Roman Catholicism and the Protestant Reformation that was beginning. The first one of these conflicts was the issue of sanctification. In his first prayer, John Calvin is heard pleading with God that grace will remain extended to him and other believers. He admits that there is sin and wrongdoings in each and every person’s lives and prays that the Lord will restore his heart to a holy and righteous state.
In 1973, Clifford Geertz- an American anthropologist- authored The Interpretation of Cultures, in which he defines culture as a context that behaviors and processes can be described from. His work, particularly this one, has come to be fundamental in the anthropological field, especially for symbolic anthropology-study of the role of symbols in a society- and an understanding of “thick description”-human behavior described such that it has meaning to an outsider of the community it originated. Alice Goffman is an American sociologist and ethnographer widely-known for her work, On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City (2015). In this work, she relays how for her undergraduate and doctoral research project, she immersed herself in a predominately African-American community of Philadelphia as a white, privileged woman. Goffman goes on the explain how the frequent policing and incarceration of young, black men from this neighborhood affects the entire community and even affected Goffman herself.
The Catholic church is distinctly stating that physical poverty is wrong and among the “christian world” there should be none. Douglass’ views on spiritual poverty convincingly supports catholic values. “I finally found that change of heart which come by “‘casting all ones care’ upon God, and by having faith in Jesus Christ, as the redeemer, Friend, and savior of those who diligently seek him” (Douglass n.p). This brilliantly shows catholic values reinforced by douglass’ conversion after his previous doubt in God in his My bondage and my freedom (... Black Atheism). Disregard to human life and dignity destroys the spirit of the living.
For she complained on how Buddhist members were lacked on emotional affection compared to Christianity. This stage also may also not just mark the beginning of Willow’s conversion but may be as well the factor of her religious conversion where Harun, Avicenna and Atqa (2012) claimed that one of the prominent factor of religious conversion is one is unhappy with previous religion and has emotional or intellectual conflict regarding former religion or past lifestyle. This supported by a Willow’s complain, Chinese (Buddhist) they don’t have the prayers part, they only burn things, no praying whatsoever like Christianity, Chinese way only burning staff, those are the customs…you see or not that is
Vaill, along with many other Christian missionary activists, believed the school’s foreclosure would hinder the Indians’ welfare and progress towards Euro-American civilization (Gaul 92). Religion and America’s development went hand in hand. Dominant Euro-American religions, such as Christianity in all of its forms, held similar moral truths regarding life and death. However, it is worth mentioning “that during the period of controversy over Harriet’s marriage, her sister Catherine met and married within the space of three months a man who was not a professed Christian, as Elias was, without any commentary from her brother-in-law” (34). Perhaps, this was because Catherine’s husband was “white,” however, racial boundaries were not yet hardened..
In 1957 Leon Festinger developed a theory that refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors which produces a feeling of discomfort which in turn makes the person alternate one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to rid the discomfort. This suggests that people are driven to avoid discomfort and inconsistency and make a change in order to balance their attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. This theory that Festinger came up with is known as the cognitive dissonance theory and has been around for over half a century. An example of this theory is if a person knows they have to lose weight in order to be healthy which would be their cognition but they do not like to exercise which is their behavior then they will have to change their behavior by starting to exercise in order to be consistent with their belief that they want to lose weight. This would make the beliefs and behaviors consistant with one another and avoid dissonance.
This essay will first give a short overview about the theory of cognitive dissonance by Festinger. Subsequent, it will explain the phenomena of free will, induced compliance and effort justification, which all create a state of dissonance according to this theory. In the end, it will give you an overview over other theories suggested on the theme. Leon Festinger first proposed the theory “cognitive dissonance” in 1957, which has later been used to explain several phenomena, for example free will, induced compliance and effort justification (Harmon-Jones, 2012). According to Festinger, individuals strive to obtain a consistency between their cognitions (Festinger, 1957).
In one poem, the main character is thus ‘a Bigot, kneeling to a doll’ and who ‘pray[s] against Old England, whom the Roman priests detest.’2 Moreover, the poem comments that ‘an object sad he was to see for any Christian souls,’ so as to imply that his belief and behaviour are far remote from what Christianity really is about. Unlike Protestantism, the Catholic faith has institutionalised the worship of religious icons, which for the magazine puts it in parallel with the Hinduist cult to idols. This implies that Catholics are not true Christians, but rather ‘pagans’ who do not follow the ‘right’ ways of God; moreover, this reinforces the idea of a connection between Catholics and sepoys through common religious