Powerful spiritual renewal and heresy arose from the chaotic scene of bloodshed, the fierce intellectual controversies played an important role in religious freedom. The Reformation had brought individual thinkers to develop the principle that no one should be persecuted for his or her religion. Sebastian Castellio was one of the very first humanists who stood on this principle and describes that the world is entangled in the questions of religion. As indicated on Document 8, he does not agree with doctrine punishment for those who denied faith to Christianity. He believed that a person’s conscience should not be subject to power and suppressed by the civil authorities.
Renaissance scholars were encouraged by the corruptions of the church to explore different avenues than previous medieval scholastics (2). This allowed scholars to “re-birth” their cultural learnings and challenge the authority of the Roman Church, that ultimately led to the Reformation, and resulted in the establishment of Protestant Churches (1-13).
He was on the opposite side of a man who is called Tetzel. Tetzel was the creator of Indulgences. Martin Luther believed that the idea of Indulgences would not work. He believed that is was just words on paper. He also believed that Tetzel and the Catholic Church came up with this idea to get money from people by telling the citizens that if you get one Indulgence, that is equivalent to saving one beloved alive or dead person from hell.
• During the Enlightenment there was a Scientific Revolution • The enlightenment was also called the Age of Reason • The chaos of the Reformation and wars of religion had shaken a belief system that had been accepted by society in the Middle Ages • People began looking for natural law, the conditions that govern human behavior • Thinkers began to believe that the problems of society could be solved through reasoning • One of the first philosophers to search for the natural laws of government was England’s Thomas Hobbes. • He believed that people by nature were bad and needed strong government • He believed that people could avoid the nature of being bad by entering into a social contract • This was an agreement to give up individual freedom to live in an organized society
He used to oppose many teachings and sayings of the Roman Catholic Church. His “95 Theses,” which was based on two central beliefs that the Bible is the central religious authority and that humans may reach salvation only by their faith and not by their deeds was to spark the Protestant Reformation. Although these ideas had been presented before, Martin Luther codified them at a moment in history ripe for religious reformation. The Catholic Church was ever after divided, and the Protestantism that soon emerged was shaped by Luther’s ideas. His writings changed the course of religious and cultural history in the West.
Different sources from both countries show opposing views that may be magnified with nationalistic pride. The British hailed victory and believed that God favoured the Protestants that’s why he sent the wind to blow away the armada.The Spanish refuses to admit that their lost was due to religion, they believed that there were other factors that contributed to their defeat and those factors were inevitable. Historical Context: Rising Tension A war over
In his medieval chronicle, Chronica Majora, Matthew Paris discusses the life and times of Frederik II. Frederik II, the Holy Roman Emperor, is often considered the first modern ruler due to some of his reforms. During his reign he continually fought with the church, particularly Pope Innocent IV. Although Frederik damaged the Church through manipulation of the papacy, particularly of Innocent IV, Matthew Paris was sympathetic to him for his academic and logical approach to tyrannical rule, while the pope was power-hungry in a less sophisticated way. The most damaging thing Frederik II did the to the church was his attempt at controlling the papacy.
Spanish claims to Latin America were based on the Christianizing mission. When Christopher Columbus arrived at the ‘New World’ in 1492 he quickly and forcibly took advantage of the wealth of the Indian tribes; those who refused to hand over their gold and jewels faced brutal punishment of all sorts. In return, Columbus and other Spaniards bestowed the Indians with Catholicism by baptizing them and teaching them the rituals of the religion. Hence, the colonization of Latin America was justified under the guise of spreading Christianity. Meade supports this by saying, “The Crown utilized this system of rewards to encourage the settlement and further conquest of the New World.” In this case, we see how the Catholic Church was used as a moral defense in order to gain the
Christian missionaries have participated in imperialist domination of the Native Americans and Asians, in the past, by imposing cultural changes on native populations in the name of religion. They have succeeded in removing their cultural identities. The technological disparity between the new world and the old world allowed for the west to gain a distinct psychological advantage over the new world. Most of the European missionaries during the colonial era were Catholic. That was partly because two Catholic countries, Spain and Portugal, took the lead in exploration.
Fulcher's claim that European Christians should have been protected from Muslim occupation and fierce persecution. As the Roman Realm disintegrated and the papacy lost power and power, moves in governmental issues and religions started. The papacy, under the direction of Pope Urban II, started the battle for more power and power. Amid the time preceding the Main Campaign, the Christian confidence "overwhelmed and directed regular day to day existence to a degree that can appear to be practically unfathomable to a present day eyewitness receptive to the states of mind and biases progressively secularized contemporary society. This religious enthusiasm sustained the "mind-boggling uneasiness: the threat of wrongdoing".