This is because critics may question the origins of God based on Descartes’s claim that perfection precedes imperfection and “something must come from something”. (Bennet 2004, 12) It is important to note that perfection in itself reaches a limit because it is incapable of improving further, thus when God possesses the sum of all possible perfections, it would mean that God does not have potential for anymore improvements. This presents a dilemma for Descartes because if God is already perfect, and perfection is viewed to be a form limit itself, then there must be no being who is more perfect than God himself. However, since everything has a cause, God must have origins as well.
Saint Anselm delivered the strongest ontological argument for God through conceptual analysis. The ontological argument is a deductive argument that is an analytical statement that can be constructed by definition(s). He argues that one thing is necessary to exist, and that thing is God. God is a necessary being. His argument is known as reductio ad absurdum, which demonstrates through a contradiction that God exists.
While Descartes can doubt that all spatial (material) things exist, either through the deception of an evil demon or an ever-lasting dream, he cannot doubt that he exists for the very same act of him thinking proves his existence. Two major things are then derived from this point that are crucial to Descartes distinction between matter and mind and its
Descartes comes to this realization from his state of total doubt after a final effort to locate an incontrovertible truth, asking firstly whether there is a God or other all-powerful being implanting his doubts. This line of thinking leads Descartes to question who truly conceives of his thoughts and doubts, then to question whether one necessarily cannot exist without a physical body (a concept he had
He referred the Unmoved Mover as the “reason for” or the “principle of” motion. For the reason that the Unmoved Mover was able to withheld the actual and eternal principle of motion. He argued also that aside from this Unmoved Mover there is no cause of everything. He believed that there is an eternal cosmos with no beginning or no end. Having Parmenides’ philosophical works as his basis, at some, he basically followed Parmenides’ famous statement, “nothing comes from nothing”.
Here, Descartes considered the negation of God’s perfection, which means without any flaw, would be nothingness and its only flaw was the absence of everything (Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy, p.82). The fact that Descartes could conceive of nothingness and think that it was true, however, must also be subjected to the cause and effect argument, in which the element of nothingness could not exist unless it was caused. Should
Then we look at the second argument of Aquinas, The Argument of Causation- everything that is caused has to be caused by something else, there cannot be an infinite number of causes, and same as argument number one that must mean there is a God since all effects have causes. The Argument from Contingency asks if everything already exists contingently has a reason to do so, does the universe exists for a reason and if the universe has a reason for its existence that that reason must be God. Aquinas’ fourth argument is the Argument from Degrees Aquinas says in order to compare two things in terms of good or bad, we must have something to compare it to, this would have to be an absolutely perfect thing aka God. Aquinas’ fifth and final argument is The Teleological Argument-
When looking through the logic of philosophers from the medieval period of Philosophy and their unconvincing logic, we first look at Anselm. Anselm wanted to prove God existed, Anselm argues that you can prove the existence of God through metaphysic metaphysical analysis, for example: Think of the most perfect being possible. If you can picture the most perfect being in your mind, then it is possible that it exists only in your mind as an example of Plato’s Theory of Forms. Anselm’s argument fails because anything you can imagine can come popping out of your mind if you wished it to be so, If anyone were to sit down and imagine the perfect God or the perfect island, would that perfect God or island even exist outside of their mind, would that
Indeed, we have now gone through the first four Meditations. Descartes opinions have come a long way from the beginning. Everything he had previously believed has been destroyed via the method of doubt, and now all that he believes to be certain is that he exists and is a thinking thing, also that god is necessarily real. Although this paper only gave Descartes justification for the soul being a fundamental substance, he later goes on to justify the body as one
Ontological argument by St. Anselm in favour of God’s existence: The ontological argument of the existence of the God is entirely based upon the fact of contradicting the non-existence of God. The original statement on which St. Anselm’s ontological argument of God is based upon is that "God is that than which no greater can be conceived. " The statement means that there cannot be a being which can be greater than God and there cannot be a being which can be imagined greater than a God as God is treated as an ultimate perfect being that can be imagined. One of the prominent feature that God has is perfection i.e., something can’t be called a God unless it’s completely perfect.
The cosmological argument looks to the world to prove God’s existence rather than pure definitions. The proponent of the cosmological argument was St. Thomas Aquinas, a theologian in the eleventh century CE (Solomon). He proposed that everything that exists must have a cause, and that the cause was God (Aquinas). Aquinas’ first point was based off of motion, that nothing can be both the mover and moved. An item sitting in place has the potential to be moving, but cannot move unless something that is already moving imparts motion to it
Descartes’ first argument for the existence of God In meditations of the first philosophy, Descartes reflects that he is often deceived by his senses. He therefore decides to discard all his pre-conceived notions and start from scratch to find out things that he is absolutely certain about. Descartes begins by showing that he is certain about only one thing, which is that he exists as a thinking thing. The fact that he can doubt his own existence goes on to show that he exists and that he is a thinking thing capable of doubting, imagining, willing etc.
Each of one 's life travels with the purposes. Otherwise, it is purposeless, and nothing. Each of one 's life travels with the purposes. Otherwise, it is purposeless, and nothing.
2 Epiphenomenal Qualia Uts Shrestha Frank Jackson attempts to show that physicalism (the doctrine that the entire world is purely physical or is reducible to a physical phenomenon) is false, or at the very least is not comprehensive. In his attempt, Jackson, presents the Knowledge argument and the Modal argument. The knowledge argument seems to be stronger of the two. It holds that there is an essence of the mind and consciousness that cannot be deducted by a(any) purely physicalist truth.
In the First Meditation, René Descartes called upon all knowledge to be doubtful. It was a significant reflection on how reality and dreams are vague. By eliminating previous knowledge and theories, Descartes wiped out every conceivable mistake in finding new establishments of information. An indisputable outcome of questioning the senses induced the chance that God is in actuality a malevolent liar, a powerful being capable of manipulating the senses. In the Second Meditation while he contemplates the previous day, he discovered trouble in solving his questions and deemed his senses and memory conniving and faulty.