The purpose of this lab is to examine the composition of three components of gas products of elimination reaction under acidic condition by conducting the dehydration of primary and secondary alcohol, and under basic condition by conducting the base-induced dehydrobromination of 1-bromobutane and 2-bromobutane. Then gas chromatography is used to analyze the composition of the product mixtures.
Abstract – Methyl trans-cinnamate is an ester that contributes to the aroma of strawberry. It can be synthesized by an acid-catalyzed Fischer esterification of a methanol and trans-cinnamic acid under reflux. The solution was extracted to obtain the organic product, and evaporated residual solvent The yield was 68%, but there is some conflicting data regarding the purity. The melting point, IR, GC-MS indicate a highly pure desired product whereas 1H NMR shows there are unreacted reagents still present.
The purpose of this report is determine if sodium chloride is a viable option as a deicer on winter roads. To determine this, one must compare a multitude of factors. In this lab, the freezing point depression of water, enthalpy of dissolution, cost, and environmental impact will be discussed. A large factor in how effective a substance is as a deicer is it’s ability to decrease the freezing point of water. If the freezing point of water can be lowered, the outside temperature must be much colder to reach this new freezing point, resulting in less ice on the roads. These results a somewhat inaccurate due to the fact that when the solutions were actually freezing is difficult to tell. Some solutions froze slowly and showed a plateau, while others
In this experiment, 0.95 mL of phosphoric acid, 0.75 mL of 2-methylcyclohexonal, and Drierite are added to a Hickman still. The prepared Hickman still is submerged halfway into a preheated sand bath. The temperature range was kept above 140 ˚C but below 165˚C to prevent the product from evaporating. The product collected in the ring of the Hickman still for about twenty minutes. Once the reaction was complete, the product was transferred into a pre-weighed vial using a slant Pasteur pipette. The percent yield of the recovered product is calculated, and IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography are used to analyze the purity and percent composition of different alkene
The purpose of this experiment was to be able to synthesize triphenylmethyl bromide from triphenylmethanol by a trityl carbocation intermediate. During the experiment, 0.100 g of triphenylmethanol was placed into a small test tube. The triphenylmethanol looked like a white powder. Next 2 mL of acetic acid was added to the test tube and the solution turned a cloudy white color. There was a strong odor similar to the smell of vinegar given off. After the solution was heated and the solid dissolved, 0.2 mL of hydrobromic acid was added to the test tube. The solution turned a bright yellow color after the hydrobromic acid was added. The solution was heated in a hot water bath for 5-10 minutes and then let cool. After heating, the
This aqueous solution was then heated until all the dichloromethane evaporated off. An error could have occurred at this point in the experiment if the hot plate was too hot. If the hot plate was set above the boiling point of the ketone, the ketone could have evaporated of along with the dichloromethane. This would result in a lower percent yield of the ketone. To prevent this from happening, the hot plate should not exceed 130˚C, so no matter what ketone was isolated, it would not evaporated off. At this point I found that if the hot plate was at 147˚C the solution boiled more vigorously, meaning that my ketone hade a boiling point of 147˚C, which was close to the known boiling point value for 3-heptanone, 146˚C. The hot plate was turned down after this was noticed. After the solution was heat, approximately for five minutes, the mass was found for the bottom layer, which was 2.27g, and the percent yield was calculated. The percent yield was determined by taking the mass of the final ketone and dividing it by the original mass of the alcohol. The percent yield was calculated to be 129.7%. This high percent yield resulted from the presence of
This procedure was undertaken in order to convert a primary alcohol, 1-butanol, into a primary alkyl halide, 1-bromobutane. This was done using hydrobromic acid. Additionally, tests were performed to assess the degree of the alkyl halide: primary, secondary or tertiary. These tests were the silver nitrate test and the sodium iodide test. The goal of these tests was to verify that 1-bromobutane, a primary alkyl halide, had in fact been formed.
Yes, the melting point data does make sense. While the melting point range was close to the given temperature range, the data was still a little lower than expected. This may have been caused by impurities in the product, since impurities cause melting point range to decrease. The product was observed moving up the capillary tube during melting point analysis, which indicates that the product was not completely dry before melting point range was taken. The water in the product evaporated and caused the product to be pushed up. It can be hypothesized that the water in the product affected the melting point
In order to achieve separation within the compound trimyristin from ground nutmeg seeds, employing a process known as extraction, a process of separating a single component to isolate and purify chemical compounds from a mixture. There are two types of extractions, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid. The separation in this experiment was conducted through not only filtration to separate and purify the triglyceride trimyristin from the nutmeg, simple distillation to remove the solvent from the product, but also the suction filtration to isolate the crystals. By using the solvent, dichloromethane the extraction of trimyristin isolated the crude oils from nutmeg and then acetone was used to help in dissolving the crystallized product.
The Wittig reaction is valuable reaction. It has unique properties that allows for a carbon=carbon double bond to form from where a C=O double bond used to be located. Creating additional C=C double bonds is valuable due to its use in synthesis. The Wittig reaction will allow the synthesis of Stilbene (E and Z) from a Benzaldehyde (Ketcha, 141).
With t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, being a tertiary halogenoalkane, it is predicted that (CH3)3CCl reacts with water in a nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN1 mechanism), where Step 1 is the rate-determining step. The reaction proceeds in a manner as shown
The process of recrystallization is an important method of purifying a solid organic substance using a hot solution as a solvent. This method will allow the separation of impurities. We will analyze Benzoic Acid as it is dissolved and recrystallized in water and in a solvent of Methanol and water.