Kellner (1995) argues that media reproduces social struggles, which in return, has an impact on the production of identities and audience understanding of the world. On the other hand, Branston and Stafford (1996) argue that media always constructs the reality and it is hardly a transparent window for this
One of the most trending media theories nowadays is the theory called participatory culture. A participatory culture is a culture where individuals act as contributors, creators, and producers of some type of published media content. It is a contrary concept to consumer culture where individuals act as consumers only. It is mainly associated with the recent technological developments and the internet era. This theory is increasingly spreading around the world because it allows people to act as prosumers and to create and publish their own content freely through the internet and other media platforms instead of consuming content only.
Postcolonial writing has concerned itself specifically with the recuperation of lost history. Cultural Memory studies is that burgeoning field of study which provides the important tools for understanding and ultimately deconstructing the configurations of nationalist and imperialist power embedded in the representation of the past which takes cognisance of the visceral experiences and the memories of resistances of the oppressed through generations (Gandhi 92). ‘Culture’ is a veritable social construct that is usually understood in and through the contents of its traditions—its modes of action, forms of language, aspirations, interpersonal relations, images, ideas and ideals. ‘Memory’ is the capacity to remember, to create and re-create our past. The substance of our very being is memory, our way of living is retaining reminders; articulating memory is our raison d’etre.
According to (Mills, 2009), discourse is verbal communication or a formal treatment of a subject in speech or writing. This sense in the general use of discourse as having to do with conversation and holding forth on a specific subject has been partly due to the various meanings of the word. (Mills, 2009) also further proposes that Discourse analysis focuses on the structure of naturally occurring spoken language, as commonly found in commentaries, interviews, speeches and conversations. In particular discourse analysis and text can be used in a much broader sense to include all language units with definable communicative function whether written or spoken. The essay below will assess how a researcher can assess discourse analysis through a
It means how citizen journalist delivered news to people, but not just a storyteller, it can shape people’s perception and to motivate citizen to discuss about those stories. Therefore, gatekeeper is being a dominant role to shape public opinion and the thinking about the society issue such as political issue, economic issue and cultural factors. Citizen who participates in journalism might not totally understand gatekeeping is important for the society. The advantage of is citizen journalists is they can provide varios types of news on the internet to people day by day. However, as Paul.W (2010) who is the publisher of the Raymondville Chronicle worried that many people wanted to voice out their political thinking or agenda.
Marry Ann Thomas quotes from Jonathan Dollimore a proponent of New Historicism, much of the work of New Historicists is explicitly concerned with the operations of power (qtd. in Thomas 3). Indeed the reason to analyze the literary texts using New Historicism approach is to show the culture. One of the methods of beginning a New Historicist analysis by Stephen Greenblatt is to recount an anecdote which contains image of the power relations for that matter. The anecdote belongs to general documents or practices firmly grounded in the historical travel narratives, penal documents, historical testimonies, confessional narratives.
Yack then identifies four categories in which the qualities of modernity can be described. These categories are the philosophic, sociological, political and aesthetic aspects of modernity. Using these categories Yack identifies qualities that can be associated with the subjective definition of modernity: philosophically it includes ways of thought that “break with tradition and received authority” (Yack 1997:32), sociologically it involves “new forms of association created by capitalism and industrial society and the break with traditional authorities and customs” (Yack 1997:33), politically “the replacement of religious and aristocratic political hierarchies with more egalitarian and democratic forms” (Yack 1997:33) is incorporated, and aesthetically includes styles which identify with the “constantly shifting conditions of modern existence, rather than in eternal forms” (Yack
But contemporary conceptions of culture are radically different from the meaning culture used to have when anthropology developed as a discipline within the academy in the nineteenth century. A brief excursion into the shifting meaning of culture over the years may help to clarify contemporary connotations of culture. Many anthropological textbooks open with the definition of culture as a whole way of life of a group or society as it was first formulated by the English
Language, Culture and Society Midterm Assignment Date: May, 04 2015 By: 000799251 Lecturer: Dr. Orly Idan The Sapir Whorf Hypothesis is also know as the hypothesis of linguistic relativity, and it states that cognitive development of each human being is influenced by the language they speak. In its most extreme form, this hypothesis assumes that the mode of expression determines the way of thinking. In the paper written by Paul Kay and Willet Kempton, “What Is The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis” the authors try to analyze the concept of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis with several experiments. The authors begin with an historical background, in the 19th century Franz Boas, Sapir’s teacher, ran into Native American languages
External influences includes an individual’s culture, sub-culture, family and social class. Culture refers to a set of values, ideas, artifacts and other meaningful symbols that help individual communicate,interpret and evaluate as members of society. It is also defined as a set of socially acquired behavior pattern that conveys symbolically through language and other means to the members of a particular society. Characteristics that are influenced by culture includes communication and language, dressing and appearance, time and time consciousness, values and work habit and practices. For communication and language, Fipper uses the English and Malay language in their advertisements respectively with a sole purpose of interacting and giving clear information to the client.