In qualitative research, the researcher interprets the data by developing a description, analyzing data and finally drawing conclusions about its meaning theoretically. The characteristics of qualitative research (Rossman and Rallis, 1998) cited in Creswell are: 1) Qualitative research usually done in the field. Meaning that the researcher should go to the field of the research object in order to collect the primary data. In this case, researcher will be able to know and understand deeply about the research object and gain better experience and got more detail data. 2) Qualitative research uses data collective which involve the participant actively and sensitively in the study.
Interview is a technique that is used by a researcher in collecting data by having dialogue with the participant. The interviews were used to support the data collected from the document analysis (teacher’s lesson plans and observation). Interviewing provided the researcher a means of gaining a deeper understanding on how the participants see and interpret a phenomenon that cannot be gained through observation (Gay et al., 2009). Moreover, Yin (2014) states the interview can provide the explanations of someone’s attitudes, perception, interests, feelings, concerns, and values of something or a case. Therefore, the interview was conducted to get more information related to the research questions as clearly as possible.
Formative research is one of the most important element of facilitating the design of programs and services. It can help refine messages to be more effective for change and generally leads to more effective social and behavior change communication and activities by ensuring that communications and
(2007) mentioned that it is important to have a clear research strategy (design), a general plan of how the researcher will go about answering the research questions. Research strategy should contain clear objectives derived from the research questions; also, it should identify the sources from which the researcher intends to collect data. Sekaran (2003) pointed out that research design involves a series of rational decisions. These are: identifying the purpose of the study, whether it is exploratory, descriptive or hypothesis testing; identifying the type of investigation; deciding the extent of the researcher’s intervention; identifying the study setting; deciding measurement and measures; deciding data analysis; deciding data collection methods; deciding time horizon; deciding sampling design; identifying the unit of analysis. Accordingly, the choice of research design depends on the research questions, objectives and research philosophy.
Researchers will need to have a close involvement with the participants to understand their perspective and interpretation regarding on a situation or phenomenon to develop an in-depth explanation. Qualitative research is done in a wide-angle lens as subjectivity is critical to examines the breadth and depth of phenomena. It is often designs in open-ended questions in order to analyse and interpret the data. The method for qualitative research includes ethnography, interview, historical research, participant observation and textual analysis. (Brennen, 2013) With the strengths of the both qualitative research and quantitative research, triangulation research method will be conducted to enhance and validate the research.
The qualitative research interview is a method of collecting in-depth data from the respondent and understands the phenomenon from the respondent’s point of view(Kvale&Brinkmann, 2009). In a similar way, Creswell (2012) adds that an interview is a conversation between a researcher and respondent with a guided, open-ended questions and recording the responses. It is a guided conversation rather than structured queries; the interview is likely to be fluid rather than rigid (Rubin & Rubin, 2011 as cited in Yin, 2014). In the same way, Yin (2014), points out, a qualitative researcher should satisfy the needs of his line of inquiry and at the same time asking friendly questions in his open-ended questions. The one-on-one interview and focus group
The next step is to list the concepts reflected in the notes and diagramming the relationship between the concepts. The research work for this project has been done from an inductive position which means that a theory will be developed from the collected data. There are various inductively based analytical procedures like data display and analysis, template analysis, analytic induction, grounded theory, discourse analysis and narrative analysis. For this research project the data display and analysis technique is selected. The data display and analysis is composed of three
Research Design comprises of different elements namely research approach, research purpose, and research strategy. 4.2.1 Research Approach The research approach for this study will be quantitative and deductive research as the study is based on long existing concepts and hence to be able to draw conclusion from findings on the observed data collected and relating them back to the concepts. Quantitative research is about asking others for their opinions in a ordered way so that firm facts and data can be created .As such to get consistent statistical results, it’s important to examine people in a fairly large number and to make sure they representative a sample of a target market. In this study we will make use of questionnaire as a mean of Quantitative research . Deductive approach can be explained by the means of hypotheses, which can be obtained from the theory.
Task 4 In-club to produce an empirical and highly practical research , the research worker must use a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches; the researcher must consider which of the diverse methods used in research are most appropriate for the probe and answering of the head . The option of methods and the way in which they are implemented will largely be determined by the research question , but will also be influenced by practical consideration, such as material handiness . Research may involve either empirical data (“fact” identified within a pre specified conceptual view) or conceptual data. Empirical inquiry is often adding up answer to describe situation or to test theory . Conceptual research is often development and arranging conceptual understandings
Patton (2002) writes” that the purpose of an interview is “to allow us to enter the other person’s perspective” Kvale (1996) “explains that interviews may be used in a qualitative research study to understand the respondents’ world, because such an understanding is rooted in the perceptions of their own experiences, which entails eliciting factual and meaningful information”. The method of data collection of this study is in-depth interview. The in-depth interview is an detailed conversation, but it has a different aim from that of an ordinary conversation. Berger (1998) “explained that in-depth interviews are conducted to get at particular issues, such as hidden feelings or attitudes and beliefs of which a Respondent may not be aware or that are only dimly in his or her consciousness. An in-depth interview is a qualitative research technique that allows for person to person discussion”.