Constructivism Theory Of Knowledge

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Chapter 4: Research Methodology

4.1. Introduction
This chapter discusses research methodology that was used to conduct study. There are elements which are employed for conducting research .According to the Crotty (1998) there are three elements which offer practical guide for conducting social research whether it is quantitative or qualitative and those are methods, methodology and theoretical perspective.

4.2. Qualitative Approach
This research adopts qualitative approach. For qualitative approach the qualitative methods, phenomenography as methodology and constructivism (theory of knowledge) as theoretical perspective will be employed. The aim of this research is to gain apprehension of stakeholders’ perceptions and prospects of quality
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So, for this study constructivism theory as theoretical perspective is selected for qualitative approach to gain the meaning, understanding, experiences and opinion of the stakeholders about prospect and quality of teaching and learning in universities. The approbation of the constructivist theory in this research is based on the assumptions that “all knowledge and meaning are contingent upon human practices, being constructed in and out of interaction between individuals and their world, and developed and transmitted within an essentially social context” (Crotty, 1998, p. 42). Human beings in the constructivist spirit are described as not only engaging themselves with the world and making sense of it, but “they are all born into the world of meaning” (Crotty, 1998, p. 54) This theoretical approach is adopted to let the (stakeholders) participants to discern their understanding and perceptions about the quality of teaching and learning in universities and in this way the researcher has access both directly and indirectly assess the quality through observations and stakeholders’ approach and their perceptions seek to better assist and understand the quality in teaching and learning. The stakeholders’ approach has been used in literatures since Freeman (1984) introduced in his book strategic Management: A stakeholder approach. The concept of the stakeholder approach to quality has been labeled as an effective tool for organizational improvement and sustainability (Boesso & Kumar, 2009; Elijido-Ten, 2007; Freeman, 1994; Goodpaster, 1991; Johansson, 2008; Mitchell, Agle, & Wood, 1997; Rowley, 1997). Stakeholders are viewed as constituents who have a legitimate interest or claim on the organization or company (Rowley, 1997). These groups of people are believed to have power, legitimacy and urgency to influence the organizational performance (Mitchell, et al., 1997). The stakeholder

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