For many years, quantitative methods for research have been used to test theories and hypotheses. Qualitative methods are still growing and in contrast to the quantitative methods, they provide a better understanding of meaning and experiences of participants. The emphasis is on the quality of experience, instead of causal relationships (Pietkiewicz & Smith, 2012). It is very important to follow a set of guidelines to provide the readers with adequate details of the research being performed and give an overview and understanding of the participants’ background lives. Elliott, Fischer, & Rennie (1999) constructed a set of guidelines to review qualitative research.
Moreover, quantitative data about the research variables would also be included in this study, which will be analysed using the quantitative research methods. The research strategy selected for the study is mix methods, which refer to the procedure whereby quantitative and qualitative research methods along with the techniques to identify the limitations determined by each method. This strategy is a significant feature of triangulation method, which demonstrates the use of more than two methods to check the results against each method implemented for providing reliable results (Kothari, 2008; Bergh & Ketchen, 2009). 3.3 Research Philosophy The selected research philosophy for the study include interpretivist, which provides that there
Researchers will need to have a close involvement with the participants to understand their perspective and interpretation regarding on a situation or phenomenon to develop an in-depth explanation. Qualitative research is done in a wide-angle lens as subjectivity is critical to examines the breadth and depth of phenomena. It is often designs in open-ended questions in order to analyse and interpret the data. The method for qualitative research includes ethnography, interview, historical research, participant observation and textual analysis. (Brennen, 2013) With the strengths of the both qualitative research and quantitative research, triangulation research method will be conducted to enhance and validate the research.
In particular, the above typologies are problematic: from linguistic data alone, it is often impossible to reliably determine what kind of error a learner is making. Also, error analysis can deal effectively only with learner production (speaking and writing) and not with learner reception (listening and reading). According to linguist Corder, the following are the steps in any typical EA research; 1) Collecting samples of learner language, 2) Identifying the errors, 3) Describing the errors, 4) Explaining the errors,5) Evaluating/correcting the
3. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH THEORY 3.1 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative research is a form of research in which the researcher collects and interprets data, meaning the researcher is as important in the research process as the participants and the data they provide. Reason and Rowan (2004) have argued that the core element of a qualitative research approach is to connect meanings to the experiences of respondents and their lives. According to Clissett (2008) qualitative research involves a variety of research methods that can be used to explore human experience, perceptions, motivations and behaviours. Qualitative research is characterised by collection and analysis of words in the form of speech or writing.
In order to answer three research questions proposed in the introduction, quantitative was applied as the main method. Besides, in an attempt to obtain the required data, two data collection instruments including survey questionnaires as well as progress and midterm writing tests were used in this study.
Error Analysis One of the most inhibition factors from the students in learning a foreign language especially in written and oral performance are making mistakes and errors. The making of errors is shows that the students have not mastered the rules of the language being learned. Students may commit grammatical mistakes and error when they miscomprehend what is taught and explained by the teacher. To cope with this problem, one of the technique widely used by the researcher is error analysis. Error Analysis (EA) as a technique for identifying, classifying, and systematically interpreting the unacceptable forms of a language in the production data of someone learning a second or foreign language (Richard & Smith, 2002).
Quantitative research ensures the simple division of the information in order to let the researcher plan statistically. Research findings should go through the pilot-test in order to ensure the authority and trustworthiness of collected data while conducting quantitative research (Hardy and Bryman, 2009). Cottrell and McKenzie (2011) mentioned quantitative method as a traditional research type. Qualitative Research Researchers conduct qualitative research in the view of finding answers and investigating the topic question of the research (Cottrell and Mckenzie, 2011). One of the aims of qualitative research is the construction of experimental understanding (Stake, 2010).
The corpus was then transcribed and analyzed in order to identify different types and frequency of grammatical errors made by the learners. In general, the errors were divided into 8 parts. It was revealed that students had more problems in using plural ‘s’, subject / verb agreement, wrong use of the verb, and prepositions. The results were discussed and the pedagogical implications were made. Keywords: grammatical errors; EFL learners; speaking 1.
(2012) did a study into 30 lower secondary school students’ errors in two types of essay writings- descriptive and narrative- in Malaysian setting. Sun. & Shang (2009) conducted a study into English Majors’ writings of argumentative essays of Ludong University in China. The study was carried out to find out the errors of the first semester students of and their causes. Zawahreh (2012) examined the written English errors of 350 tenth grade students in their writing of a narrative essay- “A Journey to the Ancient City of Jerash in Jordan”.