Research Paper On Amblyopia

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Amblyopia is decreased vision in one or both eyes due to abnormal development of vision. The term amblyopia is medically used when the vision in one of the eyes is reduced because the eye and the brain are not working properly together. The eye itself will typically look normal, but it is not being used properly in the visual process. This is due to the brain favoring the healthy eye, and ignoring what comes in from the eye with Amblyopia. This condition is also sometimes called lazy eye. Babies are not born with perfect vision in each eye, instead they must develop it between birth and 6 to 9 years of age. This is done by regularly using each eye in identical ways which will form a flawless visual pathway to the brain. In a normal eye, an…show more content…
It is an imbalance in the muscles that position the eyes that causes this form of amblyopia. There are six muscles that control how the eye moves in this sense. The two muscles that move the eye up and down include the superior rectus, which attaches to the top of the eye ball and moves the eye upward; and the inferior rectus which attaches to the bottom of the eye and moves the eye downward. Next we have the two muscles that move the eye inward and outward, these include the medial rectus, which attaches to the side of the eye near to the nose and moves the eyeball inward (towards the nose); and the lateral rectus which attaches to the outward side of the eyeball (closest to the ear) and moves the eye outward. The last two muscles are the superior oblique and the inferior oblique. The superior travels through the trochlea and then attaches to the top of the eye, it rotates the eye inward around the long axis of the eye and also has the ability to move the eye downward. The inferior begins in the front orbit by the nose and travels outward/backward before attaching to the bottom part of the eyeball. This muscle does what the one listed above and has the ability to move the eyeball outward in a front to back motion but can also move the eyeball upward (AAPOS). If there is any imbalance in these intricate muscles this is when we see the most common type of amblyopia arise. This imbalance can cause the…show more content…
This is the “normal” lazy eye that you have become to know and understand. The child’s eye may “float” off or wander, leaving the healthy eye focusing on a fixate point and the lazy eye drifting. This may be what brings younger children into the ophthalmologist office, because this sign is typically easy to notice. The opposite of a drifting eye can be that the child has noticeable crossed eyes which also tends to be a symptom of this type of amblyopia. Another clue to this type and other types of amblyopia is if the child begins to struggle or fuss when you cover one of their eyes. This is due to the vision difference between the two eyes and the fact that the healthy eye has a clear picture typically. The child is not used to the blurry image and cannot see therefore will struggle and whine until their healthy eye is uncovered. Refractive amblyopia may result from anisometropia which is an unequal refractive error between the two eyes. This can be caused if one eye is nearsighted (myopia) and the other is not, if one eye is farsighted (hyperopia) and the other is not, or astigmatism, which is the irregular curvature of the cornea, at a young age. This can also occur if one eye has more of a refractive error than the other has. Visual images in both eyes are degraded, resulting in abnormal visual

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