Abstract: Cadmium is very toxic metal for living organisms. It has adverse effects on living organisms mostly is disturb the activities for cells, tissues, and metabolic process of living organisms. Its major source is food such as plant based food, meat, cereals, fish, shellfish etc. It has toxic effects on brain, bone, digestive system, cardiovascular system and DNA. It cause severe acute and chronic toxicity.
The atmospheric scientist Paul Crutzen introduced the term "anthropocene" in the mid-1970s (Crutzen et al 2000). The term is sometimes used in the context of pollution emissions that are produced as a result of human activities but applies broadly to all major human impacts on the environment (Scott 2008).The sources of the contaminant provide pathways for the release of not only organic contaminants but also heavy metals, which can be highly toxic in very small quantities (Memon et al., 2001; Memon and Schroder, 2009). The study of metals in the marine environment has received considerable attention because of their biological significance as well as the possibility of their transfer to man
This method is usually applied on the compounds of unfavorable partition coefficient which means the desired compound is insoluble in the solvent. (4) 4. Ultrasound-assisted Extraction (UAE) or Sonication Extraction This extraction technique applies the ultrasound of the frequencies between 2kHz and 2000kHz, which increases the permeability of cell walls as well as contacting surfaces of samples and solvent and thus produces cavitation. This method is useful in extracting not only small scale but also larger scale of compounds.
The polluted water can damage the nervous system, liver, DNA and kidney. A type of pollution is soil pollution which causes cancers including leukemia etc. The presence of lead in soil is hazardous for young children and can damage to the brain. The high level of Hg can increase the risk of kidney damage and causes neuromuscular blockage.It also causes skin rashes,headaches,eye irritation,nausea and fatigue. The polluted air and water also affect animals such as acid rain destroys aquatic life in water bodies.We are observing a regular increment in the temperature and express the concern for global warming.
Mining is one of the major sources of heavy metal pollution (Razo et al., 2004). Other anthropogenic activities like disposal of treated and untreated waste effluents that are comprising toxic heavy metals are accumulated in the natural environment. A few businesses are additionally in charge of overwhelming metal pollution in the indigenous habitat, for example, the tannery, steel plants, battery enterprises, materials, microelectronics, oil ignition and warm power plants and coal consuming force plants. Additionally, the agrochemicals, for example, pesticides and herbicides containing lethal overwhelming metals are a huge inconvenience to the substantial metal sullying in the regular habitat (Bhaskar, Kumar and Nagendrappa, 2010) and (Tchounwou et al.,
1. Introduction Water pollution due to the disposal of heavy metals continues to be a great concern worldwide. Consequently, the treatment of polluted industrial wastewater remains a topic of global concern since wastewater collected from municipalities, communities and industries must ultimately be returned to receiving waters or to the land (Weber et al, 1991). Heavy metals pollution occurs in much industrial wastewater such as that produced by metal plating facilities, mining operations, battery manufacturing processes, the production of paints and pigments, and the ceramic and glass industries. This wastewater commonly includes Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr (Argun and Dursun, 2008).
Industrial revolution during last few decades is the main factor for enhancement of toxic metal contamination in the biosphere1. Heavy metal contamination is a serious environmental hazard for the agricultural soil, human, plants and animals. The most toxic heavy metals are Pb, Hg, As, Cd, Sn, Cr, Zn and Cu 2. These heavy metals are a group of 65 metallic elements with density greater than 5 gm/cm3. Among all heavy metals cadmium is one such heavy metal that is most hazardous 3 and has deleterious effects on agricultural ecosystem, environment and human health.
Swimming and drinking in contaminated water can cause skin diseases and also can lead to cancer, reproductive problems, and typhoid fever and stomach ailments in humans? Highly polluted water can harm internal organs like heart and kidneys. Synthetic organs cause serious damage to human health. Page | 5 Chemicals like fluoride, arsenic, lead chlorine and petrochemicals in water can cause adverse effect on human health. Nitrate contamination can prove fatal for infants as it can restrict the oxygen to the reach the brain causing the blue- baby syndrome.
Besides, when the infected equipment is incinerated, noxious gases and pollutants are released. Therefore, medical waste can produce air pollution. As a result, these gases can produce acid rain, which affects cities, vegetation and people. Modern incineration plants have reduced the amount of injurious gas emissions. However, these machines spend a lot of energy, and they are only located in some developed countries.