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The classification of TBI divided into primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries are the direct result that have already occurred to the head by the time the patient first present for medical attention whereas secondary injuries can be preventable and it arises as complications of primary injuries (Le and Gean, 2006). TBI also divided into location (intra- or extra-axial), mechanism (penetrating/open or blunt/closed), and clinical severity (minor, mild, moderate, or severe) (Le and Gean, 2006). In Le and Gean study, the Glasgow Coma Scale (minor: GCS _ 15; mild: GCS _ 13; moderate: 9 _ GCS _ 12; severe: 3 _ GCS _ 8) is used to rule out the severity of head injury. Epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, and intraventricular hemorrhage are primary extra-axial injuries whereas primary intra-axial lesions include cortical contusions, intracerebral hematomas, axonal shearing injuries, gray matter injury, and vascular injury.
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