Fred Lullah's Theory Of Psychological Resilience

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INTRODUCTION The study of creativity is historically rooted in the traditions of psychology (Guilford, 1950; Taylor, 1964), and is typically an effort to understand why some individuals are more creative than others. In general it has focused on cognitive and motivational processes rather than the social perspective (Jen, 2014: 111-112). As employee creativity is an important source of organizational innovation and competitive advantage (Amabile, 1988, 1996; Oldham and Cummings, 1996; Shalley, 1991; Zhou, 2003), organizations are increasingly seeking to foster individual creativity (Hirst et al., 2009: 280). Creativity and innovation drive competitiveness in the 21st century enterprises. Dynamic hyper-intensive competitive markets demand widespread…show more content…
According to another clear definition, resilience is the difference between those who recover well after adversity and those who remain devastated and unable to move ahead (Luthans et al., 2010: 47). The term psychological resilience was first brought into positive organizational behavior (POB) literature by Fred Luthans (2002). He defined resilience as the positive psychological capacity to rebound, to 'bounce back' from adversity, uncertainty, conflict, failure or even positive change, progress and increased responsibility (Luthans, 2002: 702). Masten and Reed (2002) referred to resilience as a class of phenomena characterized by patterns of positive adaptation in the context of significant adversity or risk, and they argued that resilient individual could thrive through positive adaptation to adversities encountered (Siu et al., 2014: 981). Academic research into resilience began in the 1960s by Norman Garmezy, a professor emeritus at the University of Minnesota. Professor Garmezy had realized at that time that the children of schizophrenic parents did not have psychological problems while growing up thanks to the resilience that they possessed (Coutu, 2002:…show more content…
In the past, resiliency was thought to be an extraordinary, special gift that only a few people possessed. Now resiliency is recognized to come from the ordinary, normative human resources and to promote competence and human capital in individuals and society (Luthans, 2002: 702). Resilience is considered one of the four dimensions of psychological capital other three of which are confidence, hope, and optimism. Confidence is defined as individual’s conviction about their abilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources, and courses of action required to successfully perform a specific task in a given context. Hope is considered to be the positive motivational state that is based on an interactive sense of successful agency and pathways. Thirdly, optimism is considered to be related to people’s interpretation of good and bad events. Lastly, resilience is regarded as being able to accept reality, to believe life is meaningful and to improvise and adapt to significant

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