Stroebe and Schut consider it fundamental to successful coping (Stroebe & Schut, 1999). It is a “process of juxtaposition of confrontation and avoidance of different stressors associated with bereavement” (Stroebe & Schut, 1999, pg. 215). The bereaved will at times be confronted by loss and at other times find relief through distractions and attending to new things. Optimal post-loss adjustment is posited to occur when the bereaved individual smoothly transitions or oscillate between LO and RO processes (Shah & Meeks, 2012; Stroebe & Schut, 1999).
According to Pasman (2011), labelling of mental illness can provide relief and self-justification when one acts in ways that are socially unacceptable, it helps one get access to the right treatment and support programs, and it engenders understanding. It also have some positive effect on self efficacy and thus improve treatment outcomes. Rosenfield (1997) suggested that being labeled may improve a person’s self concept and allow them to successfully move forward with coping strategies specific to their illness. Besides, some studies showed that, some patients who are suffering from depression welcomed the label of depression because they preferred that depression was recognised as a “real illness” (Barney et al.,
However, people with low self-esteem usually rely on their present situation to determine their current feeling or outlook in their selves. These people need to have good external experiences to combat any negative feelings and thoughts that they have . A key factor for an individual is to have a good self-esteem level that even current studies admit that this can be a sign of being able to resist the pressure from their social environment such as facing and resisting the use of substances of abuse
1.2.3 SOURCES OF SELF-EFFICACY Bandura (1977) outlined four sources of information that individuals employ to judge their efficacy: performance outcomes (performance accomplishments), vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological feedback (emotional arousal). These components help individuals determine if they believe they have the capability to accomplish specific tasks. Williams and Williams (2010) note that “individuals with high levels of self-efficacy approach difficult tasks as challenges to master rather than as threats to be avoided” (p. 455). Mastery Experience (Performance Accomplishments) According to Bandura, performance outcomes, or past experiences, are the most important source of self-efficacy. Individuals gauge
In this paper, I would like to point out the message of that the self-efficacy beliefs can be influential in our decision-makingprocess that may lead to attitudes change before and afterin many important life events. Self-efficacy beliefs are the conviction of ability to accomplish a given task (Bandura, 1997).As Bandura &Locke (2003) suggests that an individual with lower self-efficacy beliefs tend to accept less challenging tasks and less likely to persist in those challenges. Moreover, the higher sense of self-efficacy might be anticipated greater correctness, confidence, and persistence in the executionof decisions (Bandura & Wood, 1989). Firstly, I would like to make use of my experience of course selection to illustrate the importance of self-efficacy beliefs in decision-making. As the reason for my academic performance of Chinese history (second) in Form Two and Three, I tended to believe that I was good at learning Chinese History and be able to perform outstandingly by following what I have done in order to apply for degree relates to Chinese History.
Psychological stress refers to relationship with the environment that the person appraises as significant for his/her well-being and in which the demands tax or exceed available coping resources. Hardiness Theory comprises of three beliefs that makes people more resilient to psychological distress and physical illness in the face of stress. Social Support Theory says that support reduces effects of stressful life events on health through either the supportive actions of others on the belief that support is available. Supportive actions are thought to enhance coping performance while perceptions of available support lead to appraising potentially threatening situations as less stressful Attribution Theory deals with how perceiver uses information to arrive at causal explanations for events It is concerned with how and why ordinary people explain events as they
Concepts of the Theory The concept of resilience is a complex concept. Some authors perceived that resilience is either a trait or a process This concept is believed to help the individuals face their stresses and challenges. Resilient individuals are those who have coped and survived the stress and struggles in life. By being resilient, the individual has the capacity to adjust and withstand from stress and difficult conditions (Ousey & Edward, 2014; Oxford Dictionary, n.d.). The word resilient came from the Latin word risilire which means ‘leaping back’ (Oxford Dictionary).
This model, as highlighted by the authors, can be used to further our understanding of bereavement in a variety of contexts (Stroebe & Schut, 1999). One of the contexts in which this model was explored was for understanding more complicated variants of bereavement, which are more chronic. According to a study by Prigerson and colleagues (1997), more complicated forms of bereavement can be seen as a syndrome of loss orientation. Cases in which alternation between the two orientations do not occur was theorised by these researchers to be associated with poor adjustment among the bereaved. Apart from that, this model can also be used to explain gender differences in the bereavement process, as evidence has exhibited that bereaved mothers appear to show more loss orientation than bereaved fathers (Dijkstra, van den Bout, Stroebe, Schut, & Stroebe,
Resilience is a concept associated with periods of change, trauma, or hardship. It is often viewed in the literature as a dynamic process involving the interaction of an individual with outcomes and environment characteristic, and it has been subject to differing interpretations in this regard. It is widely viewed as a personal quality that facilitates adaptation and resistance to stress despite adverse circumstances. Empirical evidence (as discussed by Ahern et.al dynamic, developmental, and environmentally reactive nature of resilience. In this essay, I will discuss quantification of resilience, the various areas of psychiatry where promotion of resilience and coping mechanisms are associated with improved outcomes, and discuss the strategies employed.
It states that individuals that have negative emotions may weaken the response of the immune system. Positive affects influences responses to stress at different levels. Firstly people enjoying more positive affect do not have so many social conflicts, so the stress will have, while when having to deal with stressful situations people with positive affect have better social networks on which they can rely on. People carry a lot of burden at heart which makes them get tired easily and get worn out easily making them prone to diseases and other health problems. Optimism hope and positive expectations are elements that can protect health in challenging situations for peoples equilibrium by means of dirsct paths.