The process of ventilation provides air into the alveoli of the lungs. This is where gas exchange occurs. Gases diffuse across the membrane between the alveoli and the capillaries into the bloodstream according to Fick’s law: the rate of diffusion of a gas tissue is proportional to the tissue area, difference in partial pressure and is inversely proportional to the thickness , i.e. oxygen passes into the blood from alveoli and carbon dioxide exits the blood into the alveoli. The atmosphere consists of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as well as other gases.
This concept is taken from Block 4, Module 7 which is entitled as ‘Assessment of cardiovascular system’. The cardiovascular system can also be referred to as the circulatory system. It comprises of the heart and the blood vessels. The major function of the cardiovascular system is to transport nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body and to remove waste products from the body like carbondioxide. The heart pumps the blood while the blood vessels deliver blood to all body parts.
A spirometer generates a spirogram which is used to measure a person’s total lung capacity (the maximum amount of air the lungs can hold), tidal volume (the amount of air moving into or out of the lungs during one breathing cycle), and functional residual capacity (the volume of air left in the lungs after passive respiration) (Michailopoulos, et al., 2015). A spirometer can also measure additional air that is inhaled and exhaled from a person’s normal respiration called inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume (Michailopoulos, et al., 2015).
Blood in oxygen from the systemic circulation enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cava and passes to the ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation_ where the oxygen is used and diabolized to carbon dioxide. Describe the condition Hypertension: This is blood pressure that consistently remains above the normal level of 120/80. Causes: kidney disease, smoking, alcohol and diet.
Respiratory sounds can also define as breath sounds or lung sounds. It is generated through the turbulence of airflow in our respiratory tract. The air breath in and out are transmitted through air, liquid and solid and to the chest wall. Each properties of substance that the air attenuated lead to different degree and intensity of breath sounds (Jones, 1995a). Breath sounds can divided into three type, normal, abnormal and diminished (Alexandra Hough, 2001).
The blood is brick red in colour because it has oxygen and carbon dioxide. I understand this from reading L. Tucker’s book. The cardiac cycle The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occur when the heart beats. According to L. Tucker, the following occurs during the cardiac cycle: • The left and right atria contract, forcing blood into the
Most of the blood flow across to the left atrium through the foramen ovale. Then blood moves down into the left ventricle. It is then pumped into the ascending aorta. From the aorta, the oxygen-rich blood is sent to the brain, to the heart muscle, and to the lower body. Blood returning to the heart from the fetal body contains carbon dioxide and waste products as it enters the right atrium.
The bronchi and bronchioles are where air passes through either the nose or mouth, and toward the alveoli in the lungs. The airway splits into left and right braches. It splits down further and further until it reaches the terminal bronchioles. The bronchi have a very similar structure to the trachea. They both have c-shaped cartilage.
Aerodynamic analysis of voice includes static measures of respiration and dynamic measures of laryngeal valving. The static measures help in understanding the volumes of air that can be inhaled / exhaled in a breath and maximum capacities of an individual’s respiratory system. The dynamic measures provide information about the efficiency of laryngeal valving in converting the expiratory airstream to acoustic energy. Dynamic measures that aid in assessing efficiency of laryngeal valving comprise majorly of the measures of pressure variations at the level of glottis and airflow through the glottis during phonation. In recent years, multiple instruments and protocols have been developed that allow for aerodynamic data to be gathered through relatively
V02max is the rate at which an individual can expend oxygen. It can be measured amid aberrant calorimetry in a maximal test, or can be evaluated through various conditions from the execution accomplished in maximal of submaximal tests. The level of cardiorespiratory wellness is exceedingly connected with the execution of other wellbeing related wellness parameters in youngsters and in adults.  Cardiorespiratory wellness is impacted by a few components including ages, sec, wellbeing status, and hereditary qualities. It has been recommended that up to 40% of variety in the inferable from hereditary variables.
This process can be measured in numerous ways, such as observing the amount of heat produced or changes in temperature in general (since cellular respiration is exergonic.) Another technique is measuring gas consumption or emission using a respirometer. The consumption of oxygen and a high carbon dioxide concentration would constitute cellular respiration, since oxygen is a reactant and carbon dioxide is a product. In this particular study, oxygen was measured in three different germination time trials. In order to observe oxygen consumption exclusively, NaOH was utilized to absorb carbon dioxide.
In turn, the kidneys use the carbon dioxide and water to create or absorb bicarbonate. The lungs and kidneys work hand in hand because the lungs adjust the acid concentration quickly while the kidneys reabsorb or produce bicarbonate. What the lung and the kidney are doing for each other is termed compensation. Protein buffering is used in both intracellular and extracellular buffering. Proteins are considered negative buffers and pair well with hydrogen.
How the cardiovascular system works? Image result for the cardiovascular system heart without labels The cardiovascular system consists of two circuits that blood travels through; pulmonary and systemic. Exercise has an impact on these systems, causing the heart to pump blood faster around the body, which allows you to exercise for longer. The pulmonary circuit carries blood to the lungs to get oxygen and then back into the heart, whilst the systemic circuit carries blood around the body to transport the oxygen and returns the de-oxygenated blood to the heart. Image result for real human hearts Function of the heart When your heart beats it pumps blood to the lungs and around all of the body.
Impaired gas exchange is a nursing diagnosis for a patient suffering current or future problems with oxygen/carbon dioxide balance (unknown, 2012). Gas exchange is the passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in opposite directions across the alveolocapillary membrane (Miller-Keane, 2003). With impaired gas exchange a patient can have an excess or deficit in oxygenation and/or carbon dioxide elimination at the alveolar-capillary membrane (Gulanick & Myers 2014). The structure and organization of the lung is meant to maximize its surface area to increase gas diffusion. Having such a large surface area increases the amount of gas that can diffuse into and out of the lungs.