Since we have cations (positive ions), a positive value shows movement of ions outside the cell membrane and a negative value shows movement of ions inside the cell membrane. If the value is equal to that of the equilibrium potential, the driving force acting on the ion is 0. This means there is no movement of ions in or out of the cell membrane and a resting potential is attained. At this point, there are more sodium ions outside the cell membrane and more potassium ions inside the
Primary Active Transport The energy is directly derived from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or some other high-energy phosphate compound. Substances that are transported by thus type of transport are sodium, potassium , calcium, hydrogen, chloride and many more. One main mechanism that uses primary active transport is the sodium-potassium pump. This transport process pumps sodium ions outward through the cell membrane of all cells ad at the same time pumps potassium ions from the outside to the inside This pump is responsible for maintaining the sodium-potassium concentration differences across the cell membrane as well as establishing a negative electrical voltage inside the cell. Secondary Active Transport The energy is derived secondarily from energy that has been stored in the form of ionic concentration differences of secondary molecular or ionic substances between two sides of a cell medium, originally created by primary active
Case 1 Describe the relationship of sodium and potassium in the ICF and ECF According to Hale & Hovey, 2014, intracellular fluid is liquid that is found in the cells and it makes up around 60% of fluids present in the body. The fluids found outside the cells are extracellular fluids, and they make up the remaining percentage of body fluids. Sodium ions are the major cations present in the extracellular fluids while the potassium ion is the key cation in intracellular fluids. The concentration of the sodium and potassium cations contrast in ICF and ECF. The ATP pump is a sodium-potassium dependent pump that keeps the sodium concentration in the intracellular fluids to a minimum while the potassium levels high in extracellular fluids.
• Once the threshold has been reached, more Na+ gates open and Na+ ions rush into the neuron, raising the voltage of the membrane rapidly. This transition is known as “voltage-gated” and occurs very quickly. Na+ ions are driven by the concentration gradient and the voltage gradient causing the rapid
CZE, also known as free solution capillary electrophoresis, is a separation technique that predominantly takes into account the ratio of the particle’s charge to mass, where those with large charge to mass ratio separate from the rest first; therefore, the larger the ratio, the quicker the separation. In addition to the electrophoretic mobility of the molecules, CZE is heavily dependent on the application of constant field strength throughout the capillary and on the pH of the buffer solution. CZE is an excellent choice of technique to employ in cases where there are very small pI (isoelectric point) differences in protein
What stimulates the production of this hormone? What effect does it have on the kidneys? (3 marks) The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormone is produced in specialized myocardial cells primarily n the atria of the heart (Silverthorn et al., 2013). Natriuretic peptides are released by the heart when increased blood volume causes increased atrial stretch (Silverthorn et al., 2013). At the systemic level, ANP enhances sodium and water excretion to decrease blood volume.
Surfactants of emulsions are amphiphilic which means it contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. So when emulsion, the surfactant covers the surface of drops with its hydrophobic part in the drop and its hydrophilic part in the water. Typically, there are four types of surfactants: anionic, cationic, amphoteric and non-ionic. The anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) release a negative charge in the aqueous solution. They have a relatively high level of hydrophilicity.
Endocytosis is either nonspecific of specific. There are three types of endocytosis. One form is receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is where receptor proteins inserted in the membrane identify certain surface characteristics of substances to be included into the cell. Phagocytosis, or "cellular eating," is where particles larger than macromolecules are ingested. Pinocytosis, or cellular drinking," involves the capture of fluids.
Introduction Buffer is a solution that resists a change in pH when bases or acid are added. Solutions that are acidic contain high concentrations of hydrogen ions (H+) and have pH values less than seven. Buffer usually consist of a weak acid, and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. The function of buffer is to resist the changes in hydrogen ion concentration as a result of internal and environmental factor. This buffer experiment is important so that we relies the important of buffer in our life.
At high concentrations, it can affect the nervous system by preventing cellular respiration, forming complex with iron in the mitochondrial cytochrome enzymes (Locey, 2005). After much research, it is now found to fit the criteria for gasotransmitters, (i) it exists as a gas, (ii) it is permeable to plasma membrane, (iii) it can be synthesised endogenously by enzymes, (iv) it has defined functions at physiological concentrations, and (v) it has specific molecular targets and its effects can be imitated with exogenous applications (Wang, 2002). There have been a lot of evidence documented regarding the therapeutic effects of H2S, mainly in cardiovascular diseases (Elsey, Fowkes & Baxter, 2010). 2.2 Therapeutic effects of H2S H2S is reported to be a vasorelaxant of blood vessels and its effects seems to involve K+ and Ca2+ channels, though uncertain (Hart, 2011). It has also been found that H2S can produce other hypotensive effects such as regulating plasma renin levels (Lu et al., 2010) and inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme activity in endothelial cells (Laggner et al., 2007).
1. Chloride ions will diffuse into the cell, as it is moving from an area of high concentration, to an area of low concentration. Chloride ions will diffuse into the cell because the equilibrium potential of chloride ions is more negative than the membrane potential, therefore when chloride ions diffuse into the cell the equilibrium potential of chloride ions and the membrane potential will become more balance. If, by the process of active transport, chloride ions moved out of the cell this would create a bigger gap between the equilibrium potential of chloride ions and the membrane potential. 2.
The action potential is the signal that travels down the axon when a neuron is transmitting information. To understand the action potential, which is essentially the flow of ions in and out of the neuron that differ from the normal flow, one must understand the relation of ions, especially sodium and potassium, with the neuron. Neurons are covered by membranes that regulate the inflow and outflow of chemicals, and certain chemicals, like sodium and potassium can only flow in and out via channels along the membrane. At rest, the membrane maintains a certain polarization between the inside and outside of the neuron, with the inside being a little more negatively charged than the outside, at a resting membrane potential of -70 mV. When a neuron