Reverse Influence In International Relations

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domestic), dependence of a recipient which is measured by amount of supplied arms etc. In turn, Wheelock (1978) in investigating the limits of leverage in the U.S. – Israel relations argues that supplier’s relations with other actors involved in a political crisis might also play a role in defining an influence attempt’s effectiveness. Paul (1992) claims that it is presence of reverse influence on recipient’s side which affects the outcome. For example, the Pakistani government was aware that it was an important strategic actor for the U.S in the region with a capability to deter Soviet advancement. Thus, America’s ability to impose its will was severely constrained. Moreover, a supplier state completely loses its leverage once a recipient…show more content…
Trade Trade ties make states interdependent. Listed among Kantian variables of peace economically important trade increases the costs of militarized interstates disputes, and, hence, creates additional incentives for countries to settle their conflictual issues by peaceful means (Oneal and Russett 1999). More specifically, since state share dependency, when one of them tries to use this trade channel to influence the other, the latter can rely on reverse influence capability to neutralize the effect. Thus, neither of them can obtain advantage and coerce the other. However, if one of the actors contributes to trade relations more in comparison to the other participant, then the degree of reverse influence will not be enough to counterbalance the influence attempt. Although most of the trade can be described in terms of “goods for money” model or bartering, arms trade because of the unique characteristics of weapons such as destructive capability obeys different rules. Agencies within the government have control over what types of weapons can be sold and which of them are subjects to restriction (Willardson 2013, 5). Thus, in arms trade exporters are more likely to have larger influence capability than importers. b. Foreign…show more content…
This type of aid does not facilitate any economic development in recipient country, but rather is used to create some symbolic objects that are associated with development and industrialization. As Morgenthau (1962, 303) puts it prestige aid can be used to build “an unprofitable or idle steel mill, the highway without traffic and leading nowhere, the airline operating with foreign personnel and at a loss but under the flag of the recipient country.” In turn, military aid can be allocated for two reasons. In the first case military aid is a way to support allies. In the second case, military aid is given in exchange for policy concession. As it was mentioned before economic aid is given in return for policy concession as well, however what makes military aid distinct is the fact that not all donors possess domestic defense industry of a sufficient quality which makes them able to provide arms. Consequently, it might be harder to find a donor which will be able to transfer arms rather than a donor which can give money. THEORY AND
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