Review The Literature Review Of Literature On Illegal Mining

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LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW This section reviews the literature on illegal mining operation. It discusses the understanding and nature of mining in general, and its known causes. It also reviews the benefits and negative effects of illegal mining and conceptual framework of the study. The section is divided into sub-headings as follows; 2.1 Definition of terms and concepts 2.1.1 Illegal gold mining: Illegal gold miners are the process of extracting an ore or minerals from the ground with the nonappearance of land rights, mining license, assessment or mineral transportation permit or any document that allows the operation and are subject to regulation by either the Environmental Protection Agency or the Minerals Commission, or both and it can be operated in the surface or underground. Mining without registration and regulation is illegal because they are unregulated and operate outside the law (Amoah-Frimpong, 2013). Several gold belts cover Ghana’s land surface. The first belt, covering about 15-40km in width, contains the Birimian gold. Birimian gold is found in supracrustal West African rocks extending from Ghana to as far as Burkina Faso in the north, and Senegal and Mauritania in the western parts of the region (Adu-Gyamfi, 2014). Due to the mineral rich contents, a huge amount of money is accrued from the small-scale mining in Ghana. 2.1.2 MODE OF OPERATION OF THE MINERS The illegal gold miners operations

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