Duct ectasia. (42) 9- Fibroadenoma The most common benign breast tumor, made up of both glandular breast tissue and stromal tissue. Mostly occurs in second and third decade of life, but can be found in women of any age. (5) Grossly: fibroadenomas are nodular, rubbery tumors, they vary in size from less than 1 cm up to 10-15cm in diameter has borders that are distinct from the surrounding breast tissue, and they are easily separated from the surrounding breast tissue. (25) Histologically: fibroadenoma is composing of epithelial and stromal components; the epithelial part is made up of tubules consisting of cuboidal to low columnar cells, resting on a myoepithelial cell layer.
Approximately % 10 of all cancer patients develop spinal metastases (3) Half of all metastases in the spine is in the thoracic vertebra, followed by the lumbar and cervical vertebra (4,5,6). When an involvement occurs in the spine, vertebral body is the most frequent site ( followed by the pedicles and posterior elements ) and often leads to pathologic fracture (7). Plexus of Batson is used by malignant cells via hematogenous spread by virtue of lacking valves (8) The vertebral involvement in cancer patients deteriorates the course of the malignancy and not only reduces the patients quality of life but also increase the ratio of mortality. One of the determinants of the low quality of life in cancer patients that mentioned above is the pathologic fracture of the vertebra. It is reported that the incidence of pathologic fractures of the vertebra in patients with malignancy is approximately % 10 (9).
The higher compliant patients were found to be twins (31.3%) and had low birth weight (69.9%). Compliant subjects also had a higher rate of NICU stay at birth compared to the noncompliant subjects. During the post index period, approximately 164 subjects out of 5,003 total had at least one RSV-related hospitalization. Non-compliant subjects had more cases of RSV and (5.9%) RSV-related hospitalizations compared to (2.3%) compliant subjects. Most cases of RSV and RSV-related hospitalization occurred before the initial dose of palivizumab was administered, approximately 27% or 61 RSV-related hospitalizations.
Recent developments in MS drug therapies have proposed passage of leukocytes across the BBB as being of supreme significance for disease pathophysiology. Histopathological studies have reported abnormalities of this barrier in inactive MS lesions as well as normal appearing white matter. (9) 1.1. Risk factors of multiple sclerosis Multiple sclerosis afflicts people of virtually all ages across the world, although it has a special preference for women over men by a ratio of nearly two to one, and it strikes in adults 20 to 45 years of age most often; very occasionally, is found in children and teenagers. (8) Particularly, Caucasians are at the risk to develop MS, especially of northern European descent.
Statistically, about fifteen percent of the patients diagnosed with melanoma live for about three to five years. The reason why melanoma is drastically dangerous, is that melanoma develops into malignant cancerous tumors. An example of how melanoma occurs is when people expose themselves to too much ultraviolet radiation. The ultraviolet radiation is going to affect the melanocytes that we have in the epidermis. Once the melanocytes are affected, they are going to start proliferation simultaneously due to damage in the genetic code of a person, which causes cancerous malignant tumors.
The prognosis who have contracted GBM is not optimistic, due to it being a fast growing, highly malignant tumor in the brain. The survival rate is considerably low, with only around 10% of patients surviving for five or more years even with proper treatment. Median survival of Glioblastoma is only 14.6 months with treatment while a two year survival rate is around 30%. Interestingly, children with high grade brain tumors such as glioblastoma have seen a five year survival rate at around 25% (“Glioblastoma (GBM)”, American Brain Tumor Association). A major pattern seen in those diagnosed with glioblastoma is that 80% of the patients had an extra copy of chromosome 7 The cancer also affects mostly adult white males.
(melanie miller) Paralytic polio is classified into 3 types, depending on the level of involvement. Spinal polio is the most common and and results in asymmetric paralysis that frequently involves the legs. Bulbar polio causes weakness of muscles innervated by cranial nerves. Bulbospinal is by far the worst type of polio and involves bulbar and spinal paralysis. Up to 75% of these cases with bulbar involvement are fatal.
MEASLES ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS Most of the reported mortality rate caused by the infection of measles virus itself is very insignificant 1 death in 5,000 cases. Most deaths occur as a result of associated problems with measles. In other words, complications of measles are more likely to cause death on the infected person than just the measles infection only. Measles complications are more often in children. Dehydration: Diarrhea and vomiting can lead to dehydration, a condition whereby there is significant depletion of bodily fluids.
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is characterized by parasitic tumors in the liver and may spread to other organs including the lungs and brain. In humans, the larval forms of E. multilocularis do not fully mature into cysts but cause vesicles that invade and destroy surrounding tissues and cause discomfort or pain, weight loss, and malaise. AE can cause liver failure and death because of the spread into nearby tissues and, rarely, the brain. AE is a dangerous disease resulting in a mortality rate between 50% and 75%, especially because most affected people live in remote locations and have poor health care. (Thompson RA.
Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital disorder first described by Paul Julius Moebius in 1888. Its estimated prevalence in the United States is reported as 0.002-0.0002% of births, or 1 case per 50,000 newborns 1, 2. The cardinal sign of Moebius Syndrome is facial paralysis. Patients with Moebius syndrome exhibit unilateral or bilateral peripheral palsy of the abducens (VI) and the facial (VII) cranial nerves. Involvement of these nerves gives these patients the characteristic mask-like face with adducted eyes and down-turned mouth angles prohibiting voluntary facial movements 3, 4 .Dysfunction of cranial nerves III through XII is common, in particular glossopharyngeus (IX) and hypoglossus (XII) 4.
It is a slow growing cancer that can sometimes spread to the lymph nodes or close to the thyroid gland. Follicular cancer is often diagnosed in middle-aged people and affects around 5 to 10 percent of all thyroid cancer patients. This type of cancer can sometimes disperse throughout the body, mainly the lungs and bones. Both of these forms of cancer are usually curable. Radioactive iodine treatment can be used to destroy any remaining cancer cells after surgery, treat thyroid cancer that has spread throughout the body and heal returning thyroid cancer after it has already been
Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma is a rare form of cancer that affects the blood vessels of an individual and has an unknown etiology. It is considered as a low-grade cancer because it grows and spreads slowly. However, it can become malignant. It typically starts in soft tissues like the liver or the lung, and can spread to nearby or distant organs. Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma affects about 0.1 percent of the American population with an overall 5-year survival rate of 55% after a standard primary radical treatment.
Acute post-operative endophthalmitis is the most common type, which is what is seen in our patient. Statistics show that between 0.072% and 0.13% of acute endophthalmitis is caused by cataract surgeries. On the other hand, endogenous endophthalmitis is quite uncommon – only 5 in 10,000 cases. Blood-borne organisms reaching the eye via the blood-ocular barrier are what cause the infection. It is mostly seen in patients who already have complications with their immune systems, such as drug users, alcoholics, patients undergoing chemotherapy or have had an organ transplant, and patients with diseases like AIDS or diabetes,
Often dubbed, “hemophilia C,” a hereditary Factor XI deficiency that interferes with thrombin production and affects both sexes has an average occurrence rate of 1:100,000 and usually only affects those with serious injuries or surgeries (Pemberton 81). An acquired form of hemophilia (AH) also exists - the presence of autoantibodies (antibodies that target internal tissue) against FVIII occurs once per roughly every 1.5 million (Lebegue 312). Approximately 50% of cases are idiopathic, and the disease carries a mortality between 8-22% (Ibid.). It is treated using bypassing factors, which target the antibody or inhibitor, and long-term treatment with immunosuppressive steroids like prednisone and cyclophosphamide - treatments also more commonly used to treat rejection of FFP or recombinant clotting
Approximately one-half of the people with the major form of PKD advance to kidney failure, also known as end-stage renal disease. Approximately 500,000 people in the US have PKD and is the fourth leading cause of kidney failure. PKD can cause cysts to grow in the liver and in other organs; i.e. the heart and blood vessels in the brain. These complications assist doctors in distinguishing PKD from mostly harmless cysts that can form on kidneys later in life.