Will cookies bake the same if baking powder is used instead of baking soda? This is an interesting question because if baking powder can replace baking soda, it eliminates the need for both items. It also raises the question regarding if these two ingredients are different. If they are, what different effects will they have on cookies? The hypothesis for this experiment is, if baking powder is used instead of baking soda, then the cookies will not rise.
What is the effect of temperatures 10°C , 20°C, 40°C, 60°C and 70°C ± 1/°C on yeast fermentation when baking bread? ii. Aim: The focal aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect that temperature has on the growth and respiration of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentation. iii. Background Information: Yeast fermentation is directly affected by the change in temperature, because the rate of chemical reactions is affected by temperature.
When the oxygen in the dough is completely used,the process of anaerobic respiration,is initiated. The initiation of anaerobic respiration in yeast is seen as the dough rising. During this experiment saccharomyces cerevisiae will be performing the initial process of aerobic respiration, to determine at what temperature baker’s yeast respires most efficiently.
Tolerances of factors having the greatest influence on variation are adjusted after the parameter design stage. Engineers associate quality with better tolerances but strict tolerance limits increases the cost of the product or process as it requires better components, parts, materials and machinery. Taguchi’s approach allowed quality improvement without the need of better parts or materials which makes it possible to decrease cost and improve quality at the same time. Taguchi’s Parameter Design Approach: There are two types of factors which affects product’s functional characteristics i.e. the noise factor and the control factor.
Properties of taro flour The processing can affect physico-chemical and functional properties of taro flour. Taro flours possessing higher water absorption capacity and higher water solubility index give gels with higher consistency index (Mbofung et al., 2006). The chemical composition and functional properties of taro flour differed significantly from flours of different botanical sources (Table 6). Taro flours produced at pilot level showed similar physiochemical properties to the cereal conventional flours. Heat processing affects the functional properties of taro flour, therefore, blanching may also induce changes in different properties.
They consisted of several attribute such as the evaporation of water, gelatinization of starch as well as protein denaturation, volume expansion, and the formation of crust and so on (Sivam, Sun-Waterhouse, Quek, Perera, 2010). In the case of bread, the product with greater quality and sensory characteristics is obtained once dough is appropriately baked into bread. Generally, fresh bread gives an attractive brownish and crunchy crust, an enjoyable aroma, a flexible and elastic crumb texture, superior slicing features, and a moist mouth-feel (Giannou, Kessoglou, & Tzia, 2003; Singh, Mishra, & Mishra, 2012). Measurement of the latter attributes would be beneficial to monitor and control the baking process to yield high quality of bakery product. Therefore, it seems that the employment of instrumental tools is a necessity in the bakery industry.
Dough elasticity & extensibility Between the control and amylase dough, there were significant differences in elasticity and extensibility, where the control dough demonstrated higher resistance to stretching (higher tenacity), returning to original shape more readily (higher elasticity) and breaks apart when elongated (low extensibility) as compared to the loaf with amylase which demonstrated the opposite where it was able to stretch easily (lower tenacity), does not return to original shape (low elasticity) and elongates without breaking (high extensibility). Loaf Weight and Volume A comparison between the two loaves also showed no discernible distinctions between its weight before and after proofing (Table 1), with a 1.12% increase in control and 0.032% decrease in loaf with amylase present. However, the final loaf volume presented a significant difference between the two (Figure 1). It was found that the loaf with amylase was bigger, 13% in height, 10% in width and 24% in frontal area, than the control
They add that the factors affecting the distribution pattern could be classified into groups as follows: Sankalchand Patel college of engineering , visnagar . Design and fabrication of fertilizer splashing machine Page 11 2.2.1. Physical and mechanical properties of fertilizer: Physical and mechanical properties of fertilizer such as particle diameter, shape, density, friction coefficient and moisture content are important factors in determining the distribution uniformity. Reints and Yoerger (1967) showed that improving the uniformity of the distribution pattern of a broadcaster distributor is obtained by selecting the appropriate particle-diameter gradient. Reed and Wacker (1970) reported that bulk density and particle size have a significant effect on width and shape of the distribution pattern.
As there are practically no dense substances in nature, the density index of most of the building materials is less than unity. 5) Frost resistance: - The ability of a water saturated material to resist repeated freezing and thawing without considerable decrease of mechanical strength or visible signs of failure is known as the frost resistance. The frost resistance of a material depends upon the density of material and its degree of saturation with water. 6) Hygroscopicity: - The property of a material to absorb water vapors from air is known as the hygroscopicity and it is governed by the nature of substance involved number of pores, air temperature, relative humidity,
It helps in categorizing the end-product application of flour. The peak viscosity of rice flour indicates their water binding capacity of their respective starches. A relatively high peak viscosity is indication that its starch may not be suitable in the production of products requiring high gel strength and elasticity. Several studies have shown a relationship between increase in protein content and increase in pasting properties of rice flour (Bao, He, Xia, Chen, & Zhu, 1999). Amylose and Amylopectin contents in rice endosperm have been suggested to have impact on rice and rice based product quality (Allahgholipour, Ali, Alinia, Nagamine, & Kojima,