The description of language or the text is to convey the idea, to create relation and identity between people and to explain the idea of the language. To study the text is to survey what is in the text and how text is coherent. The social practice represents the understanding about the role of ideology in term of the relation between language and society in each culture. It creates discourse practice which contains the text production’s process. To study discourse practice is the way to understand why discourse is produced and how discourse construct the social practice (Fairclough,
After that combine the sounds and pronounce the word. Later he/she will think the meaning of the word. Top down Opposite to the bottom up process, top down process will decode meaning by, drawing on the listener 's own prior knowledge and expectations. This emphasizes on when we use knowledge of grammatical, syntactic and lexical rules to make meaning of what we want say.
A translator may subject him-/herself either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product. Translation is a complicated task, during which the meaning of the source-language text should be conveyed to the target-language readers. In other words, translation can be defined as encoding the meaning and form in the target language by means of the decoded meaning and form of the source language. Different theorists state various definitions for translation.
One way to solve this problem is to find a new rhythm in local language. Secondly, it is necessary to know the object and subject in the activity of translation aesthetics. The subject of translation aesthetic are translator and reader. At the first step, translator is required to have a special capability of aesthetic. It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text.
According to Marsh (p. 72, 1996), “When people interact with one another they use symbols and attach meanings to them especially in the form of language-hence the name symbolic interactionism”. It “tends to focus on the language and symbols that help us give meaning to the experiences in our lives” (Scarince, 2015). This is an example of how the interaction of humans differs from that of other species. Humans give meaning to things in order to decide how to act in certain situations or people based on what they associate the person or place with and how they view them. Different people will interact with differently to the same things or situations depending on their initial experience or interaction with it (Brown,
The use of language is always manipulated to convey a goal of the speaker in order to have an effect on the hearer. Personification is a linguistic figure that is based on describing a word with the use of another word that in other contexts would be a word that is used to define a person. The use of the word that is defining a person-like quality or action should define a word that is normally not associated with a person-like attribute or action. Personifications arouse our attitudes, feelings and beliefs about a given subject. The typical reasoning for using personifications is “either to arouse empathy for a social group, ideology or belief evaluated as heroic, or to arouse opposition towards a social group, ideology or belief that is evaluated
The theory hypothesizes "face", or our self-image, as a universal phenomenon that spreads across cultures. In a situation where there is a conflict, one’s face will look vulnerable; so, the person tends to save his or her facial expression. This communication behavior, according to the Face-Negotiation Theory, is called facework. Subsequently, people have the tendency to frame the set definition of “face” and pass the word “facework” inversely from one culture to the next, the Face-Negotiation theory has a generalization of cultural frameworks to observe facework negotiation. Stella Tiny-Toomey expanded her thoughts on this theory and hypothesizes face as an individual 's claimed sense of favorable social self-image in a relational and network context.
2.1 SPEECH ACTS There are many theories that facilitate the analysis of spoken language. Definitely, speech act is one of those theories which notice communicative purposes between speakers and listeners. This effective tool aids learners to identify and label the differences of communicative functions through utterances of interlocutors. According to the theory as pointed out by Adolphs (2008) that particular speech act can be illocutionary, the gist of an utterance that a speaker produces, and perlocutionary, the actual purpose of the saying which can be direct and indirect.
Semantic rule helps us to better understand meanings of individual words. Syntactic rule helps us arrange the symbols. In the chapter talks about how language can have an effect on our perception. There are two different approaches that represent the language and gender debates major differences and minimal differences. Significance changes are in the way women and men act socially and the way language is being use.
Conversational Implicature is one of the crucial phenomena in Pragmatics. It is used to elucidate how interlocutors mean more than they express verbally and non-verbally. It facilitates understanding of unsaid meaning which the hearer is supposed to infer. Conversational implicatures arise out of the treatment of the maxims of Cooperative Principle. The maxims, namely the maxim of Quality, Quantity, Relation and Manner, are expected to be followed by the interlocutors.
Communication is the process of understanding and sharing information. It is a 2 way process that involves sending messages (verbally and non-verbally) and receiving them (listening). Effective communication is communication that is clearly and successfully delivered, received and understood, and is key for developing and maintaining positive relationships with others. With children it helps build trust between teacher and pupil, ensuring they are comfortable around you and the classroom environment. Building trust is not based solely on verbal communication.