This means that we, as human beings, are endowed by nature with the capacity of communicating our emotions and feelings, and is the reason why we are social by nature, and our purpose can only be reached by living in the polis. In other words, humans have the capacity of debating about politics. In addition, political activity is the fullest expression of nature; you become a valuable member of society when you start participating in politics. Some people just have the natural capacity to talk about politics, the same as others are naturally qualified to be slaves; for Aristotle, slavery is necessary and natural. Necessary because while citizens are doing politics, someone has to take care of things, and natural because some people are born to be slaves, and it is what they do best.
1 INTRODUCTION Power and authority are the most important aspects of politics as such way of thinking comes a long way from the earliest thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle to mention few. They are the fundamental features of state in politics, focusing on who should have the power and authority over the people and who should rule them. During the time prior and after the birth of states, political authority has always been a major concern with regards to who should rule and how and who shouldn’t. Therefore this issues need to be addressed in a way that will at the end benefit the society. Plato is the thinker or theorist who came with addressing who should rule in a political environment in what Plato outlined that only Philosophers should rule.
Leo Strauss defined Political Philosophy in his journal, What is Political Philosophy? The problems of Political Philosophy as the attempt to know genuine knowledge of the standards which apply in political things and in political order (1969). The aforementioned discipline can be traced back to Athens, to the time of Socrates which can be seen in Plato’s work, The Republic, where he discussed in the form of discourse between Socrates, Cephalus, Thrasymachus and Polemarchus the meaning of justice which later then expanded to kinds of unjust society. Socrates was considered the founder of the political philosophy because of his questions of “What is…” that concerned human beings, how they live and things that involve their living such as the polis. (Strauss & Cropsey, History of Political Philosophy, 1987).
During this time civilizations weren't as strong and the roles of humans in a city were guided to what was needed by its community. Aristotle dates himself and the era he was present in when he talks about Athens and Sparta, which relates to around 400 B.C.E. During these times Athens and Sparta were super powers and had two different styles of governing its people. As expressed in his text, he showed the differences between a democracy and an oligarchy, which was the difference in Athens and Sparta. Athens was ran as a democracy which was that the people of the society held power.
The modern connotation of the word tends to involve oppression, but this was not necessarily the case in Ancient Greece – some tyrants were seen as benevolent (Cartwright, 2013). The fundamental difference between monarchy and tyranny was heredity. Monarchs were rulers by birthright, whereas tyrants assumed power by other means, often including
The Greek “polis” or city was the public life and the “oikos” which also means “hosehold”. Aristotle’s ideas give us a fair picture of how the Greek patriarchy operated. The concept of oikos (private) and polis (public) is very important. Aristotle was a misogynist. He believed in the doctrint of male domination in the polis.
‘At Socrates discipline, Plato adopted his philosophy and style of debate and directed his studies towards the question of virtue and the formation of a noble character’. He was greatly influenced by Socrates, Heraclitus and Parmenides. ‘He mixed together in his works the arguments of Heraclitus, the Pythagoreans and Socrates. Regarding the sensible he borrows from Heraclitus, regarding the intelligible from Pythagoras and regarding politics from Socrates’ (D.L.3.8). After Socrates death Plato left Athens and began to travel.
As stated above the society plays a role on the morality of an individual. For a society affects an individual whether consciously or unconsciously. That is Plato maintained that the virtue of an individual must also be the virtue of the state. That being said the four virtues mentioned must also be the virtue of the state. Though Plato had said that in order to know what a just man is we need to know what justice is for the state.
Going back to consider the political theory, authority, and liberty in history, we can take a look at Machiavelli and Hobbes’ perspectives and different features of documents as primary sources, so that we can comprehend how these two great philosophers viewed the themes differently. My first theme that I would extend on Machiavelli and Hobbes’ notions would be on political theory.
The Layers of Power Language in Politics Just like the Earth, the purpose of power language in politics can be broken down into different layers. In order to showcase not only what power language is, but its prevalence in politics. The layers of power language in politics start with, how power language is prevalent in politics. By going a layer deeper it shows the facts and statistics that back up power language used in politics. When you get to the layer closest to the core you examine more personable accounts to prove the prevalence, and finally the last and deepest layer, the core of power language.