The term functional was originally applied to endoscopic sinus surgery to show that it improved mucociliary clearance or functioning in the sinus. The same procedure has also simply been referred to as endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) or endoscopic polypectomy. Hence ESS is defined as an intranasal procedure involving the endoscope to improve ventilation and drainage besides to polyp removal. 25 One of the goals of endoscopic sinus surgery in nasal polyposis is to reduce the surface
Rectal suppositories intended for local action which are used to relief pain, constipation, itching, inflammation by hemorrhoids and other anorectal conditions. Anti-hemorrhoid suppositories comprise many components including vasoconstrictor, anesthetic, astringents, soothing emollients, etc. Vaginal suppositories are intended for local effects. Most commonly drugs are nonoxynol-9 for contraception, trichomonacides for the medication of
The medical investigation of a patient with hyperacusis is intended to differentially diagnose possible associated or underlying diseases, some of which can be treated. Treatment might alleviate the hyperacusis and associated symptoms and might possibly cure a life-threatening disease. Clinical History The clinical history can provide important clues about etiology (e.g., noise exposure) and is used to select laboratory and radiological examinations as well as treatments. Anxiety, depression, and concentration and sleep problems are frequent co morbidities. Thus the clinical history aids the audiologist in understanding the etiology and athorough background of the hearing loss and the hyperacusis.
Mefenamic acid A Complete Guide on Taking Mefenamic Acid Mefenamic acid is a common medication used to treat various types of pain. It belongs to a group of drugs called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which is typically taken by mouth. It works by reducing your body's production of an inflammatory substance that causes fever, swelling and pain. Part 1: Precautions Before Taking Mefenamic Acid Although mefenamic acid is a medication that may be bought over-the-counter, there are some things to keep in mind before taking it, including: • Tell your doctor/pharmacist if you are allergic to mefenamic acid, aspirin or other NSAID such as ibuprofen or naproxen. It is also safe practice to inform your doctor about other allergies because
22.214.171.124 Posterior compartment The posterior site defect may be due to an enterocele or a rectocele. For that reason, an enterocele requires a lessening of a posterior vaginal wall. On the other hand, a rectocele repair includes traditional posterior colporrhaphy rebuilding fibromuscular layer between the rectum and the vagina41. We used posterior colporrhaphy with the mesh as well41. If there is enlargement or damage of the perineal body41, we do a perineorrhaphy if necessary.
This theory prompts 2 basic approaches for treating hypersensitive dentin: 1) occluding patent tubules to reduce any stimulus-evoked fluid flow, or 2) reducing intradental nerve excitability so that the nerves do not respond to the stimulus-evoked fluid movements.  The hydrodynamic theory of dentin sensitivity is based upon the premise that sensitive dentin is permeable. This theory was first described by Brännström through studies concentrating on fluid
Analgesics are required to manage acute or chronic pain. The nociceptive pains are managed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Normally pain produced during any injury in road accidents, rail accidents, tsunami, flood, terrorism and war are acute severe pain and an analgesic is required to manage them .The preferred analgesic is an opioid. Morphine, a proto type of opioid has various adverse effects like physical dependence, constipation, vomiting, respiratory depression. Among the opioids, buprenorphine is used for the development of an analgesic autoinjector which has the advantage among other opioids like better pharmacological effect, lesser physical dependence and ceiling effect of respiratory depression (Rosenblum et al,2008)
Some Oedema cause involves: • Low Albumin (hypoalbuminemia): Albumin with other proteins present in blood act in the form of sponges for keeping fluid in blood vessels. Low Albumin might contribute to Oedema, but it is not the major cause. • Allergic Reactions: Oedema is normal component of most allergic reactions. As a result to allergic exposure, the body allows near blood vessels to outflow fluid into affected part. • Barrier of flow: if fluid drainage from body part is blocked, than fluid can support.
By decreasing atelectasis, this decrease ventilation perfusion gap and increases gas exchange move pulmonary secretions, Increase lung compliance, Manual hyperinflation may be showed in patients demanding mechanical ventilation and self-ventilating tracheostomy patients who have Chest x-ray alter the lung collapse and consolidation or by areas which are less ventilated on auscultation. The capability to monitor patients’ response (Heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturations) is essential. Manual hyperinflation can reduce respiratory drive by decreasing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) this is an significant concern in treatment of subject with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  In monitoring units physiotherapists deal with intubated patients normally with lung collapse, it is seen that furthermost of the patients went for bronchoscopy technique to expand the lung. Pulmonologists are going for bronchoscopy which is very expensive procedure and having risks of bleeding and infection. Complications with the application of Manual hyperinflation technique can arise from the incorrect use of Manual hyperinflation and incorrect patient selection.