Rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop belongs to family Poaceae or Gramineae and most important staple diet crop throughout the world (sharanapp et al., 2017). Rice crop being most important staple crop providing food for half of the world population. In developing countries, it serves as main source of income and employment for the rural community (soomro et al., 2013). Rice is a basic diet and cash crop in East Asia where vast cultivation is carried out. Major rice growing areas include India, Thailand, China, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Japan, Pakistan, Philippine, Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam and USA (Aine et al., 2017).
Rice is semi-aquatic annual plant and highly adapted to wide range of wide agroecological zones and in wide range of environments. Rice can grow in dry conditions as well as in submerged conditions. There are four general ecosystems for commercial rice production around the world, based on elevation, rainfall pattern, depth of flooding, and drainage.They are irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, and floodprone conditions. More than 90% of global rice production is harvested from irrigated or rainfed lowland rice fields. Deepwater rice found in flooded area where the field suffer periodically from excess water and there is uncontrolled and deep flooding.
Many of their dishes are remarkably close to native foods still found in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and other Asian countries. As with most Asian countries, the staple food in the Philippines is rice although foreign recipes have become a regular practice in food preparation. During the pre-Hispanic era in the Philippines, the preferred Austronesian methods for food preparation were boiling, steaming and roasting. The ingredients for common dishes were obtained from locally raised livestock. In 3200 BCE, Austronesians from the southern China Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and Taiwan settled in the region that is now called the Philippines.
Rice is a wonderful plant. It is well known as the staple food for many countries especially in Asia. In fact, the production of transgenic rice plant would be able to tackle many issues for instance, food security issue in the midst of increasing global human population. Besides, the production of transgenic rice with suppressed lipase would be a great help in rice bran oil industry. Therefore, this experiment was conducted with the aim to transform infected rice callus of japonica Nipponbare with micro RNA construct against lipase gene, and integrated into Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Recently, the research done worldwide on indigenous fermented foods is to improve the nutritional value of foods being utilized at the rural level. Enhancing the nutritional value of food for low income groups is the first step to attract global attention to rely upon renewable natural resources (handbook of IFD). Now the fermented food, either from animal or plant source are an essential part of our daily diet. Dietary habit of any culture indicates their sensory qualities and preparation methods. The preparation of some traditional fermented foods is a household art while the preparation others e.g sugarcane, soybean is carried out at large commercial scale (lary r beuchat book chapter 3).
In Pakistan, it was cultivated on an area of 985 thousand hectares, which produced 673 thousand tons of chickpea (Economic survey of Pakistan, 2012). Chickpea seeds are eaten fresh as green vegetables, parched, fried, and roasted, as boiled, as snack food and in many other conventional and non-conventional dishes. Its seeds are ground and the flour can be used as soup and to make bread; prepared with pepper, salt and lemon it is served as a side dish as well as dal Chana is very popular (Herbst 2001). There are two main types of chickpea, distinguished by seed size, shape and color. The first fairly small seeds
Rice growing is the main agricultural activity so that it is the pivot of the economics of the province (Anonymous, 2013). Figure 1 depicts the distribution of rice paddies in Guilan Province. 2.2. Statistical population The statistical population was composed of upper and middle managers, experts of Jahad-e Agriculture Organization and Rice Research Institute of Iran, professors of Guilan University, and experts working in the field of production and planting
CUCUMBER Cucumis sativus belongs to Cucurbitaceae family, it is most widely cultivated vegetable crop all over the world (Pradhan et al., 2013). It is also originated in Asia as wild cucumbers exist in India and is closely related species is found in eastern Himalayan. Based on the evidence indicates that it has been cultivated in western Asia for more than 3,000 years. From India it spread to Greece and Italy and later into China. Cucumber is now cultivated commercially in farms, green houses and in home gardens throughout the world especially in the tropics and sub-tropics.
It is more exciting and interesting food culture and new food experience. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Kakanin is common delicacy among Filipinos. The word kakanin is derived from two Tagalog words “kain” means to eat and “kanin” which means rice that was the main ingredient of the product. One such delicacy is the sinukmani, a Filipino rice cake made from glutinous rice flour, coconut milk, and brown sugar. Traditionally, this delicious rice cake is placed over banana leaves in a bilao and garnished with latik on top.
The Bicol River basin or rice granary provide the peasants rice, corn, and root crops for food and small cash surplus when crops evade the dreaded frequent typhoons. For land preparation, carabao-drawn plow and harrow are generally used; sickles are used for cutting rice stalks, threshing is done either by stepping on or beating the rice straws with basbas and cleaning is done with the use of the nigo (winnowing