Rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop belongs to family Poaceae or Gramineae and most important staple diet crop throughout the world (sharanapp et al., 2017). Rice crop being most important staple crop providing food for half of the world population. In developing countries, it serves as main source of income and employment for the rural community (soomro et al., 2013). Rice is a basic diet and cash crop in East Asia where vast cultivation is carried out. Major rice growing areas include India, Thailand, China, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Japan, Pakistan, Philippine, Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam and USA (Aine et al., 2017).
In 1992 rice is also distributed in other countries. During that year the country has a total population of 65.34 million and rice utilization per capita of 87.13 kilograms per capita per year or 238.71 grams per capita per day is about 5.7 million metric tons of rice. Farmers are producing about 5.97 million metric tons, while 35, 101 metric tons are exported (Virola, 2011). Today, as Suministrado (n.d.) mentioned, only 18 million tons of rice are produced in the year 2013 and the country is already a net rice importer. Hindrances to this are higher cost of farm inputs, greater incidence of pests and diseases, environmental problems and the lack of access to farming technologies.
The agriculture sector plays a leading role in economy of Sri Lanka. The population of Sri Lanka is 20.96 million people. Most of the people are living in rural areas and depending on agriculture for their livelihoods. Rice farming is very important in Sri Lanka, reason being not only the staple food of the majority of the people, but also the country’s food security, poverty alleviation and rural employment depend largely on rice
Review of Related Literature The Philippines is considered to be one of the world’s agricultural countries occupying a total land area of 300 million hectares and 47% of which is agricultural land (“Agriculture”, n.d.). Agricultural products such as rice sugarcane, coconut, banana, pineapple, mango, coffee, maize, and cassava are manufactured in the country both for import and for export. It is listed as the world’s eighth-largest rice producer expanding its rice area harvested from 3.8 million hectares in 1995 to 4.4 million hectares in 2010 resulting in the country’s production increased by a third, from 10.5 million in 1995 to 15.8 million in 2010 (“Philippines”, n.d.). Most Filipinos across the country consumes rice as a staple food for survival and thus grown in
Compared to the coffee production in 1995, the Philippines now produce 30,000 metric tons of coffee per year which is lower in number than that of before. The area of land being cultivated by coffee was 130,000 hectares in 1989 and unfortunately declined to only 75,000 hectares in 2006.Today, the Philippine Agricultural Department aims to improve and increase the country’s coffee crop in order to bring back the life of the Philippine coffee
Plant Breeding in Rice Rice is the one of the most important crop as a food source of more than half of the world's population. It has really large percentage in total cereal grain production. Rice is the most commonly used grain product after the wheat in human nutrition. For most of the countries in the world rice is primary staple food, especially in Asia and India. It contains fiber, vitamins, mineral and little bit protein, for nutrition and even the starch ratio in rice is higher than in wheat.
The Impact of Rice on Japanese Identity The aim of this essay is to explore how Rice is connected to the production of Japanese culture and society. I will argue, following Bourdieu, that Japanese culture and religious beliefs have been shaped and defined by their staple food; Rice. The essay will also discuss the impact of rice on Japanese morals and Japanese society as a whole. The demographics that this essay will concentrate on are; the influence rice plays in the Japanese religion; Shinto, and how the very nature of Japan’s spiritualism is in direct correlation with the use of rice in their society. “It’s impossible to overstate the importance of rice to the Japanese: the countries origins are rooted in the stuff” (McCurry, 2011) Historians
The panicles arise from the top of the plant along the stem. Also, the seeds are about two millimeters in diameter and of various colors. This crop would be a grain but it does not come from the grass like wheat, oats or barley (Raffael, 2012). This crop is well adapted to extreme environmental conditions and is also an important food source for human consumption. The seeds of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) are nutritionally
Flooded rice production occurs widely in South and South East Asia, and some parts of West Africa and Latin America. Flood prone rice is grown in low lying lands in river deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Rice production in certain areas occurs on flooded soils throughout the growing season, until harvest time. Rice is direct-seeded or transplanted into flooded fields (50–300 cm deep in water) during the rainy season. Standing water depth may vary from 50 cm to more than 3m.
Rice market in Japan, 2008-2013 Introduction Rice is a staple and “sacred” food in Japan. According to Economy Watch agriculture sector of Japan in 2012 was 1.2 % of the nation’s GDP, while rice sector was 85% in Japanese agriculture making the country self-sufficient in rice. As noted by MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery) in their monthly statistics (2015) , the 1,573,000 ha area was planted for rice and 8,435,000 tons of rice was produced in 2014. Additionally Japanese government imported 650,322 tons of rice in 2014 according to WTO import minimum quota and exported 18,400 tons including food aid. During 2008-2013 Japanese country has suffered