Richard Cloward's Theories Of Gang Behavior Analysis

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According to (2013), since the 1980s, gangs have become more turf-oriented and sophisticated in operating retail drug trade and distribution nationwide as a primary source income (p. 153). Some gangs are motorcycle gangs, street gangs, and racial or non-racial oriented. Of course, as gang’s network and their numbers increase so does the violence. In fact, gang membership is expanding to rural and suburban areas from the urban communities to distribute drugs, recruit members, and to hide out from law enforcement and other gangs (Alder, Laufer, & Mueller, 2013, p.139). Researchers believe the numbers are rising due individuals who are looking for a thrill, belonging, and protection. While gang membership is thought to only affect the lower-class,…show more content…
The environmental stress is when parents condone delinquent behavior and neighborhoods are also unstable giving rise to gang recruitment and conflict. (Alder, Laufer, & Mueller, 2013, p. 144). However, evidence shows that gang behavior is more widespread than confined to the lower-class neighborhoods and is often supervised and controlled by adult organized crime where gang leader operate both legal and illegal businesses (Alder, Laufer, & Mueller, 2013, p. 144). Therefore, researchers use the subculture theory of violence to explain criminal behavior. This theory recognizes that fact that subcultures are an influence, but suggest these subcultures do not view antisocial behavior negatively and pass these values down to other…show more content…
148). Miller believed dysfunctional family units and the acceptance of drinking and fighting are strong qualities in the lower-class arena. However, Cernovich’s disagreed with Miller, and his research showed that all classes who participate in risky behavior and thrive on excitement are more likely to self-report delinquent behavior (Alder, Laufer, & Mueller, 2013, p. 149). It is argued that as times change, middle-class individuals prefer to reach their goals through illegitimate means instead of through the conventional means of hard work (Alder, Laufer, & Mueller, 2013, p 161). It seems boredom, thrill seeking, mental illness, and unstable and dysfunctional home life also accounts for middle-class gang
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