Rise Of Fascism In Italy Between 1914 And 1945

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A. Plan of Investigation Between the years 1914 and 1945 the entire world was going through major changes. Specifically in Europe, the types of governments and their policies were experiencing a shift. It was during this time that fascism in Italy began to expand. As written in 1932 by Giovanni Gentile in the Doctrine of Fascism, the basis of fascism lies in the belief that the “state is the authority that represents the universality of all moral will and through which moral values become civil law. Self-realisation can best be fulfilled through integration in society and into the nation”. But, what factors led to the rise and sustainment of Fascism in Italy between 1914 and 1945? War, as well as political and economic weakness left the Italian…show more content…
Summary of Evidence
• After the reunification of the Italian state in the mid-nineteenth century the government became centralized.
• The local government was controlled through “the Napoleonic system of prefects and the local police” .
• At the beginning of the First World War, Italy was neutral.
• Italy joined the war on the side of Great Britain, France and Russia through the secret Treaty of London in 1915.
• Article 2 of the Treaty of London stated “On her part, Italy undertakes to use her entire resources for the purpose of waging war jointly with France, Great Britain and Russia against all their enemies” .
• Italy’s goals in joining the war were to regain territory and restore national glory.
• The Fascist Party was officially established on March 23, 1919 with Benito Mussolini as the leader .
• The Treaty of Versailles was signed in June
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The Nationalist Movement would become a basis for the formation of the Fascist Party. The centralized government that began to form in the nineteenth century is similar to the Fascist squads that rose during the twentieth century. The prefect system that was put in place during the 1800s would serve as “base on which the Fascists could build their one-party police state” . As with many other European countries, the First World War had a major effect on the events that took place following the war. The First World War is often considered to be the true origins of Fascism in Italy. Some historians even go as far to call Fascism a “child of war”, arguing that without the war Fascism would cease to exist. Italy wanted to restore national glory by joining the war, but this was not the case. Being a part of the war highlighted the negative aspects of the Italian state including its economic, military and political weakness. The men who had served in the war for Italy would eventually become some of the primary supporters of Fascism. The psychological effects of trench warfare and the war as a whole led to many ex-servicemen supporting the Fascist movement because of its violent and militant ways. The Treaty of Versailles also played a major role in the rise of Fascism. If the people of Italy were not already dissatisfied with their government, and the state of the economy etc. the Treaty of Versailles
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