Epidemiology is a branch of science which tries to find out the frequency and distribution of disease in a specific environment in order to find out the causative agent, discover ways to treat the disease and work towards preventing it’s reoccurrence in the future. Epidemiological triad can be defined as a model representing the cause of a disease. The Epidemiological triad consists of three major components, i.e. the host, the environment and the agent. The agent and the environment have to act together to cause the disease in the host.
There are two type of sampling methods and this study will use a probability sampling. Probability sampling method is a technique with which one can specify the probability that each member of the population will be included in the sample. It is an ideal method of sampling and it is the only approach that makes possible the selection of a valid representative group and hence allow for valid generalization of findings from sample of the population, (Linda 2005). This research uses a stratified random sampling. The population will be divided into four stratum being management team, marketing team, compliance team and general staff team.
An important aspect of epidemiology is to carefully observe these variations in disease occurrence and then try to find out the reasons for these variations. This may lead to the understanding of the causal mechanisms involved in the disease process.
The problems encountered in the control of the disease call for research on other novel ways of managing the disease. This includes among other targeting the vectors of the disease as a way of controlling the disease. The MCMV is transmitted by corn thrips, leaf beetles or rootworms. The SCMV is transmitted by aphids. By targeting these insects the disease can be controlled.
2.6.1 Global epidemiology of Listeria monocytogens The illness Listeriosis is an advancing infection of major public health significance worldwide due to the occurrence of its foodborne outbreaks and significant risk of mortality and morbidity. According to Weinstein and Bronze (2015), the overall mortality rate of L monocytogenes infection is 20-30%. Human listeriosis is mainly acquired through ingestion of contaminated food; Other modes of transmission include the transmission of the infection from mother to child transplacentally or through an infected birth canal and cross-infection in neonatal nurseries (Farber et al., 1992; Colodner et al, 2003). According to Howard (2007), listeriosis was found to be highest in infants 60 years of age.
Like the CPSC, AMS also investigates chemical exposures, monitors health and product safety, but in addition monitors and responds to emergencies, protects food and water and research chemicals. This organization is a branch from the USDA the main goal of theses agencies is to provide quality meat and poultry by researching and removing
Moreover, quantitative data about the research variables would also be included in this study, which will be analysed using the quantitative research methods. The research strategy selected for the study is mix methods, which refer to the procedure whereby quantitative and qualitative research methods along with the techniques to identify the limitations determined by each method. This strategy is a significant feature of triangulation method, which demonstrates the use of more than two methods to check the results against each method implemented for providing reliable results (Kothari, 2008; Bergh & Ketchen, 2009). 3.3 Research Philosophy The selected research philosophy for the study include interpretivist, which provides that there
1. What is a disease vector? Discuss the roles and importance of disease vectors in the transmission of diseases. 25 pts. A disease vector is any agent that transmits and carries an infectious pathogen into another living organism.
Numerous studies worldwide are conducted to quantify the means of infection spread in order for prevention and better management. It is of vital importance to assess infection control measures to be able to create means of prevention and containment. In order to illustrate the importance of infection control, studies dating back to the early nineteen hundreds will be highlighted. One of the first research conducted was by professor Simon Flexnor in 1912, which was aimed at understanding poliomyelitis as well as its means of transmission, and the effect of infection control on suppressing the epidemic of the disease at said time. He tried to verify that the virus was transmitted through the
Several assumptions used in the mark-and-recapture technique must be determined and enumerated. Consequently, a comparisons and contrasting should be made between the results of the Lincoln-Petersen method to the Chapman estimator. Calculations for the estimated population size of the subject of E. viridis must be made. And lastly, ecological implications must be identified after the analysis and interpretations of the value gathered. Significance of the