Positive reinforcement may happen in the form of behavior compliment, personalized reward systems, edibles or positive adult attention (Lalli, et al., 1999). Defining the exact appearances and components of positive reinforcement for a student needs knowledge of student likings and attitudes. The most common way to determine student likings for positive reinforcement can be through a structured interview of student likes and dislikes. According to Alberto and Troutman (2012), positive reinforcement happens when the importance of a definite behavior increases the behavior across time. Many people connect the terms positive reinforcement and praise.
Skinner, positive reinforcement is when you specifically reward someone; to increase the probability of that same response occurring in the future. The concept is that reinforced behaviour tends to reoccur and therefore become stronger. When behaviour is not reinforced it is less likely to occur and therefore becomes weaker. Behaviour strengthens through positive reinforcement because it rewards an individual for a specific action. An example of how positive reinforcement works would be an experiment done by B.F. Skinner.
Fixing the strength is complimentary to remedying weakness, which have been the traditional psychological model. Positive education is one of the main research interest within the positive psychology which studies about the consequences of positive conditions and individual strengths in educational settings. John Dewey advocated positive schooling through the idea of constructivism, which emphasizes the individual’s ability to construct learned information according to their own idiosyncratic capabilities and views. Montessori system emphasized the importance of creativity on learning where children are provided with hands on materials through which they can express themselves through learning. Elizabeth Hurlock studied the effectiveness praise in the classroom and found that praise was effective in children regardless of age, ability and gender.
The values that I observed and analysed in my journal entries are the behaviour, participation, sharing, motivation and also creativity. When the children participate it affects them for the future as well. This is because they learn to say what they want and also give their opinions. When they participate they communicate more with others because they are free to express themselves. Participation is important for the children because they can tell their opinion about the subject and also learn more.
Summary: Positive behavioural supports are specifically intended to increase the occurrence of desirable behaviours with students who struggle to consistently behave in an appropriate manner and to eliminate (or gradually decrease) negative and undesirable behaviours, both in school and outside of school. The primary focus of such interventions is often on students with autism who struggle with social interaction and behaviour, social communication and, resort to repetitive, potentially disruptive and occasionally, self-injurious behaviours. Therefore, positive behavioural supports that are visual and easily accessible by the student have been proven to reduce undesirable behaviours and to increase more positive, desirable behaviours. The most common form of visual behaviour support in the classroom is picture schedules. These schedules are used to inform and remind students of events, lessons and, changes that are to occur during the regular school day.
This suggests that in order to expand in our field we should learn from our experiences by thinking about them using models of reflection. There are numerous reasons why pondering on different occurrences can be a positive experience, they can be useful when dealing with a challenging situation, this can help the practitioner contemplate and give the situation some thought before handling it, this is most common as one may reflect on a previous argument with a co-worker this would give the chance to face our feelings about the experience. For instance, if a senior member of staff asked an undergraduate student for a favour which perhaps included making a display board for the parents to see when they would walk in the student would feel very uncomfortable doing this task because it takes a lot of responsibility and it is very time-consuming, being only a student most would use a positive face and agree to do this task in order to demonstrate that they could accomplish this. However, after they would reflect on how they felt about this and possibly react differently. If the student felt too under pressure next time they should have simply declined politely, instead the student used Politeness theory, a theory by Brown and Levinson
(1991) indicates that the balance between negative and positive feelings is a good indicator of happiness. This suggests the measurement of objective happiness by means of individual balance of positive and negative experiences. Other studies revealed that purely measuring positive emotions, strong implications could be made about the individual happiness level; they can be seen as markers and sources of happiness (Diener, 2005). This is the reason why Seligman only used positive emotions in the PERMA model. Having a valued and worth filling positive life also strongly depends on positive emotions, (Fredrickson, 2001) due to the high correlation of life satisfaction and SWB (Michalos, et al., 2009).
If we see a positive feedback towards other people’s action, we tend to imitate it, thus, influencing us to do the same thing in a given circumstance, either to be rewarded based on this action or to be a better version of our self. This factor greatly affects the individual on his/her decision at a given time because of the influence
In such real life examples, the negative state is largely intermeshed and thus, there is often more than one “right” way to response. This is particularly so when considering the interference of emotional distress, which is nearly impossible to detach from instrumental needs or unmet material desires. In fact, most empirical studies have incorporated emotional distress, while testing helping and/ or sharing behavior (but see Kenward and Gredeback, 2013). The widely used out-of-reach instrumental helping tasks (e.g.,
According to Conservation of Resources Theory, job resources play an important role in reinforcing positive images of oneself and could lead to work engagement (Demerouti et al., 2001). Social support may also play an extrinsic motivational role in better achieving work goals. However, not all studies have supported a link between coworker social support and engagement. De Lange et al. (2008) did not find social support predictive of later (16 months) engagement.