Road Crash Case Study

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CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION From year to year, the number of vehicles on the road based on the development of automobile and transportation industry has increased year by year. To more dependence on transportations frameworks. The interest for vehicles has been expanding for a current society is all the more better. Subsequently, the vehicle crash accident has become a major problem for worldwide health. This is caused by road vehicles such as vans, trucks, cars, buses and heavy vehicles. A motor vehicle can be involved in the variety of crash events, each causing human injury of the different method. Table 1-1 provides a more detailed analysis of the nature of crashes in Malaysia in 2010 grouped by the severity of each crash…show more content…
From this information, the road crashes obviously constitute a great economic for worldwide health problem. The energy absorption capacity of protective and vehicles structures has become more important for safety requirements. For example, to address the adverse effects of an event, the increasing focus has been paid to the use of energy-absorbing devices. Such devices has predominantly been designed to mitigate impact energy during a collision for protect the structure and its occupant. For many years, the various types of energy absorbers have been placed in the vehicle structures, particularly for the cars is constitute significant number for the road casualties this caused by car crashes. This is illustrated in Figure 1-2, for the road crashes in Malaysia in 2010 for different vehicle types. Now, the use of energy absorbers has been extended to a vehicle and transport systems such as dock fenders for ships, aircraft subfloor structures and buffer…show more content…
It has higher specific stiffness, higher specific strength, and better thermal insulation properties compared with other engineering materials. The characteristics of foam are usually described by its relative density, (are the densities of foam and solid material of the cell wall, respectively), and stating whether it is open or closed cell, as reported by Gibson and Ashby [45]. For the open-cell foam, the cell walls are broken and air fills all the spaces in the material (Figure 2-3a). Thus, this type of foam is soft and weak. While in the closed-cell foam (Figure 2-3b), most of the cell walls are not broken and they are resembled together in a compact configuration in order to make them strong enough to undergo large

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