Robert Spearman's Theory Of Artificial Intelligence

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Human’s fascination with intelligence and attempting to measure it is ancient, with intelligence tests being administered in China over four thousand years ago. (Kane and Brand, 2003). Spearman’s theory of general intelligence (g) is one of the few theories that has stood the test of time and been supported by subsequent researchers (Gottfredson, 2003). It suggests that intelligence is due to one general ability or function (g) which predicts success in school and life (Spearman, 1904). The more recent Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983) completely opposes this, proposing over seven modalities of intelligence. Robert Sternberg has taken a middle ground (Sternberg, 1999). He admits that there is a huge breadth of evidence for the…show more content…
(Bernstein and Nash, 2008). IQ tests also test this type of intelligence, and Western school systems favour this intelligence above all else with emphasis on memorising and analysis (Sternberg, 2005). Practical intelligence is the second form of intelligence described by Sternberg and this is the ability to apply knowledge outside of the classroom (Sternberg, 2005). Sternberg explains that high practical intelligence is a “better predictor of adaptive functioning in the everyday world”(Sternberg, 1999, p. 438) compared to analytical intelligence, citing a study of Russian adults which found that those with high practical intelligence had lower incidence of anxiety and depression and had better physical health. Creative intelligence is the third type of intelligence and it focuses on the ability to excel when faced with a novel scenario – ie an unfamiliar task or situation (Jacobson, Mulick and Rojahn, 2007). Sternberg believes that everyone has all three intelligences in varying amounts and that we can each capitalise on our strengths and compensate for our weaknesses (Sternberg,…show more content…
Sternberg encourages learners to know their own learning style so that their can make the most of their strengths, while compensating for their weaknesses (2005). The name of this theory evolved to become the Theory of Successful Intelligence (2005) with a focus on optimising success in life by deftly manipulating our environments. He gives the example of how law is divided into solicitors and barristers in the UK and Ireland to allow different people to play to their strengths. He encourages discovery learning, allowing learners to explore ideas that go beyond the traditional curriculum (2002). A learner’s belief about their own abilities often stem from their ‘achievements’ at school and impacts hugely on the choices they make later on in life (Sternberg,
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