Concepts of identity and personality can be described in various ways such as Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development, James Marcia Identity Statuses and Han Eysenck’s Five Factor Model of Personality. These theories examine factors that help build and shape our identity internally and externally. To validate theories, I will be examining Martin Luther’s classic identity crisis from the article Fit in the Choir. A common question high school students get during their graduation year is ‘what are you going to major in?’ and most students will not know. Erikson’s and Marcia’s theory both support this common theme.
Although Erikson 's theory of identity development is widely cited, there are several social psychological theories providing vital knowledge about identity and its development. The attachment theories emphasize the value of the trust and security that a child learns from his/her mother in infancy. Social learning theories expand the constructs of self concept and self worth as the basis of self description in late childhood. Cognitive development theory describes the age-related processes leading to a child 's limitation before adolescence and competence during adolescence for establishing identity. The foci of these theories are different, reflecting an array of approaches to the issue but all of them present the facets fundamental to human
Erikson emphasises that the individual experiences significant psychosocial and personal change at each stage of life until death. Additionally, Levinson’s theory observes adulthood as a continual process of re-evaluation and change. Social and emotional features of adulthood are significant contributors to instability due to changing roles and emerging of life events. Continual challenges are guaranteed because the length of adulthood has endless potential for new experiences. This relates to Erikson’s notion that identity evolves throughout the lifespan due to experiences.
All these categories are artificial. However secure those may feel, everything is what we were brought up to believe important by society and media. So what is identity? Identity is a concept open for interpretation and therefore, depends on the individual. Many people may try to decipher ‘who you are’ by asking the question “where are you from?” This simple question has become the means for many to categorize and identify someone.
According to Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, individuals at this stage are experiencing “Identity vs. Role Confusion” in which the adolescent struggle to discover and find his or her own identity, while negotiating and struggling with social interactions and “fitting in” and developing a sense of morality and right from wrong. Adolescents during this time place a high importance on social relationships, such as friends and experimenting with different roles, activities and behaviors. All five of the participants expressed that they had to sacrifice this social aspect during the time of teenage motherhood. Although they felt that it was difficult to forgo, the participants took on their new mother role and committed to their obligations. This attributed to their dignity and pride as a mother that each participant manifested (Erikson
Human beings are leaning to learn since the day of creation. Many tryings have been tried to learn learning. There are also some other theories of learning but Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development is marvelous. It has eight stages and each stage has its own period and importance. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Many researchers have tried to revise after Freud 's psychoanalysis, to show the value associated with the process and I have to follow their development (Kail, Cavanaugh, 2004).
Initially, they are apt to experience some role confusion mixed ideas and feelings about the specific ways in which they will fit into society and may experiment with a variety of behaviors and activities (e.g. tinkering with cars, baby-sitting for neighbors, affiliating with certain political or religious groups). Erikson is credited with coining the term "Identity Crisis." Each stage that came before and that follows has its own 'crisis ', but even more so now, for this marks the transition from childhood to adulthood. This turning point inhuman development seems to be the reconciliation between 'the person one has come to be ' and 'the person society expects one to become '.
According to Erickson (1950) psychological development results from the interaction between maturational processes or biological needs and the societal demands and social forces encountered in everyday life. (Salkind, 2004) As you know Erickson’s theories contains eight stages and in order to move onto the next stage you must have resolved any conflict that may have occurred. Erickson’s theory emphasises on the importance of the ego. The ego is the executor of realistic goal seeking actions between biological urgers of the id and the social constraints of the superego. (Salkind, 2004) Erickson believes that social pressures and environmental forces have even greater impacts.
In social identity theory, this process is termed “self-categorization” (Stets & Burke, 2000). Tjfel and Turner (1987) claim that social identity theory confirms that the in-group or (self-categorization) is built by the group membership in ways that the in-group is preferred at the expense of the out-group. They proposed the example of (minimal group paradigm) by which they argue that the mere individuals’ categorization is sufficient to lead them to the in-group favouritism. In that experiment, groups were randomly categorized (Trepte, 2006). Social group is a group of people who see themselves and are seen by others as members of this group (Tajfer & Turner, 1979).
Even though Erikson’s theory was incorporated with Freud’s early works, he continued to branch the theory by emphasizing adolescent’s tasks of identifying development. Erikson began using a chart which was sued to describe the human development and it includes the initial eight stages. Though there were eight stages, Erikson left blank sixty-four boxes to be used as a tool and for future researchers to complete the remaining squares with drawing relationships. The initial eight stages go as follows; trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. identity diffusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair. In analyzing the chart, it is acknowledged that each stage proceeds one another and no one bypasses the stages.