At that time, agriculture production is low because of lack of agricultural knowledge and technological inputs were also low which bind the whole family to work in agriculture fields. After 1750s industrial revolution began and it led to advances in agricultural technology that greatly increased food production, which allow other people to pursue other work. At that time horsepower came into use and machinery like steam engine used in the agricultural process. Tractors were used for ploughing. In 1701 Jethro Tull’s used drill ways of sowing seed in rows, in the place of broadcasting.
Such low productivity leads to increasing poverty and food insecurity of rural poor farm households in the country. During the past years, the government and NGOs have undertaken various attempts to enhance agricultural productivity particularly that of cereal crops so as to achieve food security and to reduce poverty in the country. The available studies on the productivity of cereal crops in general and maize production in particular in Ethiopia found low productivity in comparison with the international standards (Alemayehu, 2009), although, the
In rural areas of the developing world, women play a key role in running households and make contributions to agriculture production. But the inequalities that exist between women and men make it difficult for women to fulfil their potential. According to studies compiled by the United Nations, despite women performing nearly two-thirds of the world’s work, they receive
2.3 Theoretical relations of agricultural technology and poverty The relationship between agricultural technology and poverty reduction has been a source of fervid debate for the past four decades. The bulk of the literature on the Green Revolution technologies argues that ‘the higher yielding plant varieties, the greater use of fertilizers and the increased irrigation’ have been essential for the decline of poverty in Asia (Mendola, 2006). The extensive review on a theoretical ground, there are several plausible arguments to expect that agricultural technology can reduce poverty. On the basis of the literature, we can distinguish direct and indirect effects of technology adoption on household poverty reduction. Direct effects of technology on poverty reduction include increase productivity gains and lower per unit costs of production, which can raise incomes of producers that adopt technology.
The majority of them are involved in crop farming, while the rest rear livestock. While male farmers may outnumber female, a far higher percentage of women work in farming than men. Only 46.6% of Indian male workers are employed in farming. Still, the number of women in farming seems to be coming down. When the NSSO gathered employment data five years earlier, 73.3% of women workers were in agriculture.
The significant issue confronted by the oil palm plantation is shortage of labour, which might be comprehended with the presentation of proper machineries (Ismail, 2010). Many benefits listed by Asoegwu (1998) through his study that made in Nigeria. It includes achieving low time taken in farm operation that due to the increasing of yield, low level of dependent to direct labour, reduction of losses in harvesting process and contribution to effective land use. 2.3 Manual
However we can still identify areas and regions of potential such as Erbil in Iraq which is a new venue for foreign investors. Indeed, FAO could discuss strategies and ways of collaboration with the private sector or action plan to lead to the development of agribusiness in these developing countries, by helping the small holding farmers in the rural areas, and the SME’s. As an international organization which main goals are to eradicate hunger and poverty, FAO thinks that promoting this sector could help in reducing rural poverty and hunger as the agribusiness is largely composed of small holders, farmers, and SMEs. This could be done by the 6 areas of work and engagement FAO has enabled to partner with other sectors: Knowledge management and dissemination, Norms and standards setting, Mobilization of resources, Development and technical programmes, Policy Dialogue, and Advocacy and
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Various literature have been concerned with modeling the effects of migration on productivity in both developed and developing countries with most relating to the socio economic impact of migration on rural areas within these countries including Nigeria. There has been a shortage of research on rural-urban migration and its effect on agricultural productivity in Nigeria. Although there’s quite a lack of literature on rural-urban migration and agricultural productivity in Nigeria some authors have made reference to it because migration from the rural areas greatly concerns Nigeria’s food supply as most of her food is gotten from the rural areas. This chapter is concerned with the conceptual definitions of basic
Agriculture is not constrained to provide employment opportunities and a source of income for farmers; it is a source of substantial revenue for both central as well as state governments too. Hence, if agriculture affects badly the revenues of the both governments will be affected in the same way. In Mr. Bethu Sudhakar views” Agriculture is one of the main sources of revenue for the state especially for the state governments. Not only does the government get a substantial income from land revenue but the prosperity of the rail ways and income from many other sources is also dependent on favourable agriculture. Indeed, a bad agricultural year is a bad year all around both for the government and the people”51 Most of the poor in India still live in rural areas.
This paper analyses the organisation and functioning of rural labour market in India. The rural labour market has been the crucial source of labour in the rural production process, in particular and labour required for the industrialisation process. The rural labour market, theoretically, formed with proletariat class in a capitalist agrarian society, a class whose only source of income is selling labour power in wage labour market. However, the presence of peasantry especially in developing countries, like India complicates the formation of the rural labour market. The crucial determining factors of the peasantry to participate in rural labour market, especially within the capitalist agrarian framework are two folds, first, the existing land