Although they are seen as a major pest for turfgrass managers they are many benefits to be gained from having earthworms in the soil. Earthworms cause nutrients tried up in organic matter to be released back into the soil, creating a sticky organic molecule that will form a good crumb structure in the soil, which therefore prevents the leaching of nutrients (Ford 2002). “It may be doubted whether there are many other animals which have played so important a part in the history of the world, as have these lowly organised creatures” – (Charles Darwin 1881) You could say that earthworm’s most important role is in the decomposition process within the soil leading to an increase in the nutrient availability and soil fertility. Earthworms can improve the rooting of plants through infiltration rates and the modification of soil structure and soil aeration. They are also beneficial as they reduce thatch and tend to increase the fertility and health of a soil (Reicher
Soil salinity is rising issue in many places in the world causing many farms to go out of business since their soil is simply “unfarmable”. Famines are another major area of concern because various fungi make crops inedible in some regions in the world. A solution to this dilemma maybe GMOs because with proper research and inquiry scientists have been able
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Situational Analysis Soil productivity is an important concern for farmers. Green manuring, crop rotation and mix farming are oftenly used to improve the soil fertility at the same time the nutrients used in plant growth are conserved and returned to the soil to enhance its fertility (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 1993). Green manuring is the plowing under or soil incorporation of any green manure crops while they are green or soon after they flower. Green manures are grown for their leafy materials needed for soil conservation (Boller et al., 2004). Plants are commonly used for green manuring have Rhizobia bacteria for nitrogen fixation similarly crop rotation is alternating legumes and non-legumes plants Most plants
1.INTRODUCTION The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important nutrient cycles found in terrestrial ecosystems. The element nitrogen plays a special role for the yield and quality formation of forage cultivationbreeding in agriculture. Large quantities of nitrogen are fixed by plants in form of ammonium or nitrate ions for their own growth. Crop nitrogen is then an essential feed component for animal growth and development in form of protein nitrogen. After animals’ digestion nitrogen can be detected in certain amounts in the products like milk or meat, but the major portion is excreted in the feces.
Soil has the capacity and ability to hold Listeria for as long as it can since it cannot be affected by anything biologically as it contains no life in it. Listeria thereby spreads most in soil related substances and organisms that develop out of it, mostly plants and later advancing to the animals as the first step upon the plants being eaten by these animals. In human beings, Listeria gets access as a result of improper cooking of vegetables and fruits and also arises from beverages, the dairy products being the main access point from improper
One of America’s most prevalent environmental problems is nutrient pollution. Nitrogen and phosphorus occur naturally in soil and water and are the principle chemicals that enhance growth in plants. However, they are also added to the environment by humans, primarily as fertilizers, and these excess chemicals can grow plants on both land and water faster than the ecosystem can handle. This poses the question as to whether the government should regulate the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus occurring in our ecosystem. The significance of nutrient pollution is very important because of the adverse effects it places on our organic home and conversely on our communities.
(N.Suttle, 2010). 2.3.2 Functions and deficiency symptoms of Phosphorus in plants Like any plant nutrient, the insufficiency of Phosphorus adversely affects the growth and development of the plant. This is because; Phosphorus is a constituent of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and most proteins and is necessary for metabolism of carbohydrates, fat, and proteins and for respiration. (Gupta, 2004) In plants, Phosphorus is involved in energy transfer. This is accomplished by organic combination of phosphorous through esterification with adenosine to form either adenosine, mono-, di-, or triphosphate (AMP, ADP, ATP).
Sustainable agriculture is an alternative method for solving basic and applied issues associated to food production in an ecological way (Lal, 2008). It tackles many serious problems that affect the global economy and food production such as high energy costs, declining petroleum reserves, soil erosion, food security, and risks to organism’s habitats and human health (Reganold et al., 1990). In the late 20th century, environmentalists, agricultural scientists and small farmers seen the devastating effect farming was causing to water and soil, which are the key components to agricultural production. This prompted them to explore better ways to farm (Earles, 2005). The use of fertilisers to sustain high- yield agriculture, which contains many different nutrients such as phosphorus, was observed.
Some of the issues includes biodiversity issues and the welfare of animals. 4.1 Biodiversity Issues Biodiversity denotes how many different varieties of plants and animals exist in a region. Conserving biodiversity is significant as different organisms prosper in various ecological conditions. Prevalent planting of genetically modified crops with more desirable traits such as greater yields and drought, disease or insect resistance will reduce biodiversity immensely and rework the food chain. For example, a study in UK involved aphids that consumed GM potatoes; the food was found to have an injurious effect on ladybirds that fed on aphids.
Natural and organic farming has been the present craze all over the world nowadays, this is due to the proliferation of new diseases that are borne out of the chemicals that are being induced to human food. Recent agricultural inventions were also invented due to growing problem about waste disposal especially in the highly urbanized societies around the world. In Asian countries for example where Rice is a staple food rice hull, rice bran and rice straws are of gargantuan quantities thus agricultural scientists developed different ways to utilize this wastes by carbonizing rice hull. Carbonized Rice Hull or CRH nowadays is being utilized as soil ameliorant, fertilizer to correct soil ph, water filter and deodorizer especially in livestock production. The agriculture society is now in a global campaign to go back to old ways of farming while introducing revolutionary techniques in livestock, vegetable and fertilizer production using only natural and organic inputs that are beneficial to human health and with less impact to the environment.